Acetone

Title: Acetone
CAS Registry Number: 67-64-1
CAS Name: 2-Propanone
Additional Names: dimethylformaldehyde; dimethyl ketone; b-ketopropane; pyroacetic ether
Molecular Formula: C3H6O
Molecular Weight: 58.08
Percent Composition: C 62.04%, H 10.41%, O 27.55%
Line Formula: CH3COCH3
Literature References: Obtained by fermentation (by-product of butyl alcohol manufacture) or by chemical synthesis from isopropanol (as chief product); from cumene (by-product in phenol manufacture); from propane (by-product of oxidation-cracking); Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 21-25. Toxicity: Smyth et al., Ind. Hyg. J. 23, 95 (1962). Review: Weiss, Chem. Eng. News 36, 79 (1958); W. L. Howard in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 1 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1991) pp 176-194. Review of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Acetone (PB95-100095, 1994) 276 pp.
Properties: Volatile, highly flammable liquid; characteristic odor; pungent, sweetish taste. d2525 0.788. bp 56.5°. mp -94°. nD20 1.3591. Flash pt, closed cup: 0°F (-18°C). Miscible with water, alcohol, dimethylformamide, chloroform, ether, most oils. Keep away from fire! Keep away from plastic eyeglass frames, jewelry, pens and pencils, rayon stockings and other rayon garments. LD50 in rats: 10.7 ml/kg orally (Smyth).
Melting point: mp -94°
Boiling point: bp 56.5°
Flash point: Flash pt, closed cup: 0°F (-18°C)
Index of refraction: nD20 1.3591
Density: d2525 0.788
Toxicity data: LD50 in rats: 10.7 ml/kg orally (Smyth)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, nose and throat; headache, dizziness, CNS depression; dermatitis. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 2.
Use: Solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, rubber, plastics, lacquers, varnishes, rubber cements. Manuf methyl isobutyl ketone, mesityl oxide, acetic acid (ketene process), diacetone alcohol, chloroform, iodoform, bromoform, explosives, aeroplane dopes, rayon, photographic films, isoprene; storing acetylene gas (takes up about 24 times its vol of the gas); extraction of various principles from animal and plant substances; in paint and varnish removers; purifying paraffin; hardening and dehydrating tissues. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent).
Acetone Cyanohydrin Acetone Sodium Bisulfite Acetonedicarboxylic Acid Acetonitrile Acetophenazine

Acetone[1]
Full structural formula of acetone with dimensions Skeletal formula of acetone
Ball-and-stick model of acetone Space-filling model of acetone
Sample of acetone
Identifiers
Abbreviations DMK
CAS number 67-64-1 YesY
PubChem 180
ChemSpider 175 YesY
UNII 1364PS73AF YesY
EC number 200-662-2
UN number 1090
KEGG D02311 YesY
MeSH Acetone
ChEBI CHEBI:15347 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL14253 YesY
RTECS number AL3150000
Beilstein Reference 635680
Gmelin Reference 1466
3DMet B00058
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C3H6O
Molar mass 58.08 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Pungent, irritating, floral
Density 0.791 g cm−3
Melting point −95 to −93 °C; −139 to −136 °F; 178 to 180 K
Boiling point 56 to 57 °C; 133 to 134 °F; 329 to 330 K
Solubility in water miscible
log P -0.042
Vapor pressure 24.46–24.60 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 19.2
Basicity (pKb) -5.2 (for conjugate base)
Refractive index (nD) 1.35900
Viscosity 0.3075 cP
Structure
Coordination
geometry
Trigonal planar at C2
Molecular shape Dihedral at C2
Dipole moment 2.91 D
Thermochemistry
Specific
heat capacity C
125.45 J K−1 mol−1
Std molar
entropy So298
200.4 J K−1 mol−1
Std enthalpy of
formation ΔfHo298
-250.03-(−248.77) kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion ΔcHo298
-1.772 MJ mol−1
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
GHS hazard statements H225, H319, H336
GHS precautionary statements P210, P261, P305+351+338
EU Index 606-001-00-8
EU classification Flammable F Irritant Xi
R-phrases R11, R36, R66, R67
S-phrases (S2), S9, S16, S26
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
3
1
0
Flash point −17 °C; 1 °F; 256 K
Autoignition temperature 465 °C; 869 °F; 738 K
Explosive limits 2.6–12.8%[7]
Threshold Limit Value 1185 mg/m3 (TWA), 2375 mg/m3 (STEL)
LD50 3000 mg/kg (oral, mouse), 20000 mg/kg (dermal, rabbit), LC50 = 19000 mg/m3 (inhalation)
Related compounds
Related compounds Butanone

Isopropanol

Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references
This page refers to the chemical compound. For the slowcore band, see Acetone (band).

Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO. It is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest ketone.

Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[8][9] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner.

Acetone is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems. Pregnant women, nursing mothers and children have higher levels of acetone.[10] Ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body are used to reduce epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy.