Acetylcarnitine

Title: Acetylcarnitine
CAS Registry Number: 3040-38-8; 14992-62-2 (DL-form)
CAS Name: (2R)-2-(Acetyloxy)-3-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium inner salt
Additional Names: L-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt acetate; acetyl-L-carnitine; ALCAR
Molecular Formula: C9H17NO4
Molecular Weight: 203.24
Percent Composition: C 53.19%, H 8.43%, N 6.89%, O 31.49%
Literature References: Naturally occurring ester of carnitine, q.v.; important acetyl donor in metabolic processes. Prepn from carnitine extracted from meat: R. Engeland, Ber. 42, 2457 (1909); R. Krimberg, W. Wittandt, Biochem. Z. 251, 229 (1932); E. Strack et al., Z. Physiol. Chem. 238, 183 (1936). Resolution of isomers: K. Brendel, R. Bressler, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 137, 98 (1967). Extraction from calf brain tissue: E. A. Hosein, A. Orzeck, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 3, 71 (1964). Enzymatic determn in serum: K. Tomita et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 24, 1147 (2001). Clinical trial in cognitive impairment in the elderly: G. Salvioli, M. Neri, Drugs Exp. Clin. Res. 20, 169 (1994). Review of pharmacology in the CNS: L. Janiri, E. Tempesta, Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Res. 3, 295-306 (1983); of bioactivity and clinical studies in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression: J. W. Pettegrew et al., Mol. Psychiatry 5, 616-632 (2000); of pharmacokinetics and metabolism: C. J. Rebouche, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1033, 30-41 (2004).
Properties: Hygroscopic crystals, mp 145° (dec). [a]D20 -19.52° (c = 6). Very sol in water, alcohol. Practically insol in ether.
Melting point: mp 145° (dec)
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -19.52° (c = 6)
Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 5080-50-2
Additional Names: Acetyl-L-carnitine chloride; levacecarnine hydrochloride
Manufacturers' Codes: ST-200
Trademarks: Branigen (GSK); Nicetile (Sigma-Tau); Normobren (Medosan); Zibren (Sigma-Tau)
Molecular Formula: C9H17NO4.HCl
Molecular Weight: 239.70
Percent Composition: C 45.10%, H 7.57%, N 5.84%, O 26.70%, Cl 14.79%
Properties: Stable crystals, mp 187° (dec). Also reported as small rod-shaped crystals from butanol, mp 181° (Strack). [a]D20 -26.9° (c = 9). [a]D25 -28° (c = 2 in water). Very sol in water, sol in alcohol. Practically insol in ether.
Melting point: mp 187° (dec); mp 181° (Strack)
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -26.9° (c = 9); [a]D25 -28° (c = 2 in water)
Therap-Cat: Nootropic.
Keywords: Nootropic.
Acetylcholine Bromide Acetylcholine Chloride Acetyldigitoxins Acetylene Acetylene Dibromide

Acetylcarnitine
(R)-Acetylcarnitine V.3.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(R)-3-acetyloxy-4-trimethylammonio-butanoate
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Legal status Over-the-counter
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Half-life 4.2 hours[1]
Identifiers
CAS number 3040-38-8 YesY
ATC code N06BX12
PubChem CID 7045767
ChemSpider 5406074 YesY
UNII 6DH1W9VH8Q YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:57589 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1697733 N
Chemical data
Formula C9H17NO4 
Mol. mass 203.236
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. It is naturally produced by the body, although it is often taken as a dietary supplement. Acetylcarnitine is broken down in the blood by plasma esterases to carnitine which is used by the body to transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for breakdown.[2]