Alemtuzumab

Title: Alemtuzumab
CAS Registry Number: 216503-57-0
CAS Name: Anti-(human CD52 (antigen)) immunoglobulin G1 (human-rat monoclonal CAMPATH-1H g1-chain) disulfide with human-rat monoclonal CAMPATH-1H light chain, dimer
Additional Names: Campath-1H
Manufacturers' Codes: LDP-03
Trademarks: Campath (Schering AG); MabCampath (Schering AG)
Literature References: Humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the pan-lymphocyte antigen, CD52. Induces complement-mediated cytolysis resulting in lymphocyte depletion. Prepn: L. Riechmann et al., Nature 322, 323 (1988); H. Waldmann et al., WO 8907452 (1989 to Medical Research Council); eidem, US 5846534 (1998 to British Technology Group). Structure-activity study: J. Greenwood et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 23, 1098 (1993). Crystal structure of the antibody combining site: G. M. T. Cheetham et al., J. Mol. Biol. 284, 85 (1998). Clinical evaluation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A. Osterborg et al., Br. J. Haematol. 93, 151 (1996); in renal transplant patients: R. Calne et al., Transplantation 68, 1613 (1999). Review: F. J. Dumont, Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs 2, 139-160 (2001).
Therap-Cat: Antineoplastic; immunosuppressant.
Keywords: Antineoplastic; Monoclonal Antibodies; Immunosuppressant.
Alendronic Acid Aleuritic Acid Alexidine Alexitol Sodium Alfadolone Acetate

Alemtuzumab ?
Monoclonal antibody
Type Whole antibody
Source Humanized (from rat)
Target CD52
Clinical data
Trade names Campath, MabCampath, Lemtrada
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a608053
Pregnancy cat. B2 (AU) C (US)
Legal status -only (US)
Routes Intravenous infusion
Pharmacokinetic data
Half-life ~288 hrs
Identifiers
CAS number 216503-57-0 YesY
ATC code L01XC04
DrugBank DB00087
UNII 3A189DH42V YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1201587 N
Chemical data
Formula C6468H10066N1732O2005S40 
Mol. mass 145453.8 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Alemtuzumab is a drug used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and T-cell lymphoma under the trade names Campath, MabCampath and Campath-1H, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis as Lemtrada. It is also used in some conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation, kidney transplantation and islet cell transplantation.

It is a monoclonal antibody that binds to CD52, a protein present on the surface of mature lymphocytes, but not on the stem cells from which these lymphocytes are derived. After treatment with alemtuzumab, these CD52-bearing lymphocytes are targeted for destruction.

Alemtuzumab is used as second-line therapy for CLL. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for CLL patients who have been treated with alkylating agents and who have failed fludarabine therapy. It has been approved by Health Canada for the same indication, and additionally for CLL patients who have not had any previous therapies.

(Mab)Campath was withdrawn from the markets in the US and Europe in 2012 to prepare for a higher-priced relaunch of Lemtrada aimed at multiple sclerosis.[1]

A complication of therapy with alemtuzumab is that it significantly increases the risk for opportunistic infections, in particular, reactivation of cytomegalovirus.