Amber

Title: Amber
CAS Registry Number: 9000-02-6
Additional Names: Baltic amber; bernstein; succinite
Literature References: A fossil resin from the extinct pine tree Pinites succinifera (Goepp.) Conway, Pinaceae. Found along the Baltic coast, also mined in Samland (East Prussia). Baltic amber contains: C 79%, H 10.5%, O 10.5%; succinic acid 3-8%; a-amyrin 20-30%. Refs: Plonait, Angew. Chem. 48, 184 (1935); Schmid and co-workers: Ann. 503, 269 (1933); Monatsh. Chem. 63, 210 (1933); 65, 348 (1935); 72, 290, 311 (1939). Review: Berthelot, Chim. Ind. (Paris) 50, 78-9 (1943); Frondel, Econ. Bot. 22, 371 (1968). Infrared spectroscopy of different varieties of powdered amber: C. W. Beck et al., Nature 201, 256 (1964). Chemical constitution: J. B. Lambert, J. S. Frye, Science 217, 55 (1982).
Properties: Pale-yellow to reddish-brown resin. Transparent or cloudy (due to enclosed air bubbles and free succinic acid). Brittle; conchoidal fracture. d 1.05 to 1.10. Harder than most other resins. nD 1.539-1.545. Softens at 150°, mp 350-375° giving off a choking, aromatic odor. When rubbed it is a good generator of static electricity.
Melting point: mp 350-375°
Index of refraction: nD 1.539-1.545
Density: d 1.05 to 1.10
Derivative Type: Oil of Amber, Rectified
Literature References: Obtained by the destructive distillation of amber and purified by redistillation. Consists of a mixture of terpenes with resinous, oxygen-containing substances.
Properties: Pale yellow to yellowish-brown, volatile oil; penetrating odor; burning acrid taste. d 0.850-0.920. aD20 +22 to +26°. Insol in water. Sol in about 10 vols alcohol; freely sol in chloroform, ether, carbon disulfide, oils.
Optical Rotation: aD20 +22 to +26°
Density: d 0.850-0.920
Use: The best quality is machined into beads and other personal ornaments. For teething strings. Also used for making mouthpieces of tobacco pipes and cigarette holders. Small pieces are pressed into "ambroid" and then used for the same purpose. Impure material goes into the manufacture of "amber" varnishes.
Amberlite? Amberlyst 15? Ambrisentan Ambrosin Ambroxol

Amber pendants made of modified amber. The oval pendant is 52 by 32 mm (2 by 1.3 inches).
Worry beads (masbaha) made of Dominican Republic blue amber.
An ant inside Baltic amber
A mosquito and a fly in this Baltic amber necklace are between 40 and 60 million years old
A mosquito in amber
The Amber Room was reconstructed from the Kaliningrad amber.
An Amber Frog Violin bow, made by Keith Peck in 1996/97.[1]
Unpolished amber stones
Wood resin, the source of amber
Extracting Baltic amber from Holocene deposits, Gdansk, Poland
Unique colors of Baltic amber. Polished stones.
Fishing for amber on the coast of Baltic Sea. Winter storms throw out amber nuggets. Close to Gdansk, Poland.

Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.[2] Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects.[3] Amber is used as an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry.

There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions. Amber occurring in coal seams is also called resinite, and the term ambrite is applied to that found specifically within New Zealand coal seams.[4]