Ammonium Chloride

Title: Ammonium Chloride
CAS Registry Number: 12125-02-9
Additional Names: Ammonium muriate; sal ammoniac; salmiac
Molecular Formula: ClH4N
Molecular Weight: 53.49
Percent Composition: Cl 66.28%, H 7.54%, N 26.19%
Line Formula: NH4Cl
Literature References: Contains 99.5-99.8% NH4Cl; principal impurity is NaCl; exists in two temperature dependent crystal modifications. Prepn and properties: Gmelins, Ammonium (8th ed.) 23, pp 150-184 (1936); N. C. R. Kane, "Ammonium Chloride" in Mellor's Vol. VIII, supplement 1, Nitrogen (part 1), 378-432 (1964). Manuf: A. W. Bamforth, S. R. S. Sastry, Chem. Process Eng. 53, 72 (1972). NMR study: K. H. Michel, Proc. Int. Sch. Phys. 1976, 392. Toxicity data: E. M. Boyd, K. G. W. Seymour, Exp. Med. Surg. 4, 223 (1946). Brief review: C. W. Weston in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol 2 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1992) pp 695-698. Review of properties and use in water treatment: P. Smeets, Trib. Eau 570, 26-29 (1994).
Properties: Colorless, odorless crystals or cryst masses; or white, granular powder; cooling, saline taste; somewhat hygroscopic. Tendency to cake. Strongly endothermic. d204 1.5274. Sublimes without melting. Soly in water (w/w): 22.9% (0°); 26.0% (15°); 28.3% (25°); 39.6% (80°). HCl and NaCl decrease soly in water. Sol in methanol, ethanol. Almost insol in acetone, ether, ethyl acetate. pH of aq solns (25°): 1% 5.5; 3% 5.1; 10% 5.0. LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 30 i.m. (Boyd, Seymour). LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1650 orally (Smeets).
Density: d204 1.5274
Toxicity data: LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 30 i.m. (Boyd, Seymour); LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1650 orally (Smeets)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure to fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; cough, dyspnea, pulmonary sensitization. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 16.
Use: As a flux in zinc and tin plating; electroplating, electrolytic refining of zinc; etching solutions in manufacture of printed circuit boards; in dry and Leclanché batteries; as a nitrogen source for fertilization of rice and wheat, manufacturing of explosives; flame suppressant; hardener for formaldehyde-based adhesives; mordant for dyes and printing.
Therap-Cat: Acidifier.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Expectorant; diaphoretic; acidifying diuretic.
Keywords: Acidifier.
Ammonium Chromate(VI) Ammonium Chromic Sulfate Ammonium Citrate, Dibasic Ammonium Cobaltous Phosphate Ammonium Cobaltous Sulfate

Ammonium chloride
Ammonium chloride.jpg
CAS number 12125-02-9 YesY
ChemSpider 23807 YesY
UNII 01Q9PC255D YesY
EC number 235-186-4
KEGG D01139 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:31206 YesY
RTECS number BP4550000
ATC code B05XA04,G04BA01
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula NH4Cl
Molar mass 53.491 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor odorless
Density 1.5274 g/cm3
Melting point 338 °C (decomposes)
Boiling point 520 °C
Solubility in water 297 g/L (0 °C)
372 g/L (20 °C)
773 g/L (100 °C)
Solubility in alcohol 6 g/L (19 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 9.24
Refractive index (nD) 1.642
Std molar
entropy So298
94.85 J K−1 mol−1 [1]
Std enthalpy of
formation ΔfHo298
−314.55 kJ/mol[1]
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg[2]
GHS hazard statements H302, H319[2]
GHS precautionary statements P305+351+338[2]
EU Index 017-014-00-8
EU classification Harmful (Xn)
Irritant (Xi)
R-phrases R22, R36
S-phrases (S2), S22
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
Flash point Non-flammable
LD50 1650 mg/kg, oral (rat)
Related compounds
Other anions Ammonium fluoride
Ammonium bromide
Ammonium iodide
Other cations Sodium chloride
Potassium chloride
Hydroxylammonium chloride
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Ammonium chloride, an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl, is a white crystalline salt, highly soluble in water. Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. Sal ammoniac is a name of the natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. The mineral is commonly formed on burning coal dumps, due to condensation of coal-derived gases. It is also found around some types of volcanic vents. It is used as a flavouring agent in some types of liquorice. It is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia.