Amylin

Title: Amylin
CAS Registry Number: 106602-62-4
Additional Names: Diabetes-associated peptide; insulinoma amyloid peptide; islet amyloid polypeptide; IAPP
Literature References: Peptide hormone co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic beta cells in response to a meal or other nutrient stimuli. Affects carbohydrate absorption and disposition; modulates the effects of insulin. Major component of pancreatic amyloid deposits characteristic of noninsulin-dependent diabetes and thought to be involved in insulin resistance. Amylin deficiency occurs in insulin-dependent diabetes and may contribute to excessive insulin sensitivity and a heightened tendency to hypoglycemia. Structurally homologous with calcitonin gene related peptide, sharing certain bioactivities such as vasodilation, osteoclast inhibition, and appetite suppression. Isoln from human insulinoma amyloid: P. Westermark et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 140, 827 (1986); from diabetic islet amyloid: idem et al., Am. J. Pathol. 127, 414 (1987); G. J. S. Cooper et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 8628 (1987). Review of bioactivities: B. J. Edwards, J. E. Morley, Life Sci. 51, 1899-1912 (1992); T. J. Rink et al., Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 14, 113-118 (1993). Review of role in insulin resistance: B. Leighton, G. J. S. Cooper, Trends Biochem. Sci. 15, 295-299 (1990); in carbohydrate metabolism: A. Young et al., Biochem. Soc. Trans. 23, 325 (1995). Effects on appetite regulation and memory: J. E. Morley et al., Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 73, 1042-1046 (1995). Review of role in age-related disease and therapeutic potential: G. J. S. Cooper, C. A. Tse, Drugs Aging 9, 202-212 (1996).
Derivative Type: Human amylin
CAS Registry Number: 122384-88-7
Additional Names: Amlintide
Manufacturers' Codes: AC-001
Molecular Formula: C165H261N51O55S2
Molecular Weight: 3903.28
Percent Composition: C 50.77%, H 6.74%, N 18.30%, O 22.54%, S 1.64%
Properties: Composed of 37 amino acid residues; mol wt 3903.35.
Therap-Cat: In treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes.
Keywords: Antidiabetic; Hormones/Analogs.
Amylocaine Hydrochloride Amyloid beta Peptide Amylpenicillin Anabsinthin Anacardic Acid

Islet amyloid polypeptide
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols IAPP; DAP; IAP
External IDs OMIM: 147940 MGI: 96382 HomoloGene: 36024 GeneCards: IAPP Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE IAPP 207062 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3375 15874
Ensembl ENSG00000121351 ENSMUSG00000041681
UniProt P10997 P12968
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000415 NM_010491
RefSeq (protein) NP_000406 NP_034621
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
21.51 – 21.53 Mb
Chr 6:
142.3 – 142.3 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Amino acid sequence of amylin with disulfide bridge and cleavage sites of insulin degrading enzyme indicated with arrows

Amylin, or Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-residue peptide hormone.[1] It is cosecreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells in the ratio of approximately 100:1. Amylin plays a role in glycemic regulation by slowing gastric emptying and promoting satiety, thereby preventing post-prandial spikes in blood glucose levels.

IAPP is processed from an 89-residue coding sequence. Proislet Amyloid Polypeptide (proIAPP,Proamylin, Amyloid Polypeptide Precursor, Proislet Protein) is produced in the pancreatic beta cells (β-cells) as a 67 amino acid, 7404 Dalton pro-peptide and undergoes post-translational modifications including protease cleavage to produce amylin.[2]