Arbutin

Title: Arbutin
CAS Registry Number: 497-76-7
CAS Name: 4-Hydroxyphenyl-b-D-glucopyranoside
Additional Names: hydroquinone-b-D-glucopyranoside; hydroquinone glucose; arbutoside; ursin
Molecular Formula: C12H16O7
Molecular Weight: 272.25
Percent Composition: C 52.94%, H 5.92%, O 41.14%
Literature References: Naturally occurring glycoside of hydroquinone, q.v., found in the bark and leaves of various plants, usually occurring together with methylarbutin. Principal antibacterial constituent of the traditional medicine, uva ursi, q.v. Isoln from bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng., Ericaceae): A. Kawalier, Ann. 82, 241 (1852); from leaves of blueberry, cranberry, and pear (Pyrus communis L., Rosaceae): G. Urban, M. Rogowski, Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 211, 194 (1950). Synthesis: C. Mannich, Arch. Pharm. 250, 547 (1912); A. Robertson, R. B. Waters, J. Chem. Soc. 1930, 2729. Production by plant cell culture: S. Inomata et al., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36, 315 (1991). Physical properties: E. Lindpainter, Arch. Pharm. 277, 398 (1940). Determn in drug prepns: L. Kraus, Pharmazie 19, 41 (1964); E. Kenndler et al., J. Chromatogr. 514, 383 (1990). Inhibition of human melanin synthesis in vitro: K. Maeda, M. Fukuda, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 276, 765 (1996). Review of human exposure: P. J. Deisinger et al., J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 47, 31-46 (1996).
Properties: Occurs as the monohydrate. Colorless elongated prisms from moist ethyl acetate, mp 199° after sintering at 163-164° (Robertson, Waters). Also reported as unstable form, mp 165°; stable form, mp 199.5-200° (Lindpaintner). [a]D20 -60.3° (in water). Sol in water and in alc.
Melting point: mp 199° after sintering at 163-164° (Robertson, Waters); unstable form, mp 165°; stable form, mp 199.5-200° (Lindpaintner)
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -60.3° (in water)
Derivative Type: Methylarbutin
CAS Registry Number: 6032-32-2
CAS Name: 4-Methoxyphenyl-b-D-glucopyranoside
Additional Names: methylarbutoside
Molecular Formula: C13H18O7
Molecular Weight: 286.28
Percent Composition: C 54.54%, H 6.34%, O 39.12%
Properties: Crystallizes from water as the monohydrate, mp 158-160°; solidifies and melts again at 175° (Mannich). Also reported as unstable form, mp 160.5°; stable form, mp 176° (Lindpaintner). [a]D20 -60.66° (in water). Sol in hot water or alcohol; slightly sol in ether.
Melting point: mp 158-160°; solidifies and melts again at 175° (Mannich); unstable form, mp 160.5°; stable form, mp 176° (Lindpaintner)
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -60.66° (in water)
Use: In cosmetics as skin lightening agent.
Ardeparin Areca Arecaidine Arecoline Argatroban

Arbutin
Arbutin structure.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 497-76-7 YesY
PubChem 346
ChemSpider 389765 YesY
UNII C5INA23HXF YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:18305 N
ChEMBL CHEMBL232202 N
RTECS number CE8663000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C12H16O7
Molar mass 272.25 g mol−1
Appearance colorless to white powder
Melting point 199.5 °C; 391.1 °F; 472.6 K
Boiling point 561.6
Solubility in water 5.0 g/100 mL
Solubility soluble in alcohol
slightly soluble in ethyl ether
insoluble in benzene, chloroform, CS2
log P -1.35
Vapor pressure almost 0 (25 °C)
Hazards
MSDS Sigma-Aldrich
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
0
0
Flash point 293.4 °C; 560.1 °F; 566.5 K
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Arbutin is a glycoside; a glycosylated hydroquinone extracted from the bearberry plant in the genus Arctostaphylos. It inhibits tyrosinase and thus prevents the formation of melanin. Arbutin is therefore used as a skin-lightening agent. Arbutin is found in wheat, and is concentrated in pear skins. It is also found in Bergenia crassifolia.[1]