Brain Natriuretic Peptide

Title: Brain Natriuretic Peptide
CAS Registry Number: 114471-18-0
CAS Name: Brain natriuretic factor
Additional Names: B-type natriuretic peptide; BNP
Literature References: Peptide hormone structurally and physiologically similar to atrial natriuretic peptide, q.v. Originally discovered in mammalian brain, subsequently found to be produced primarily by the cardiac ventricle in response to hemodynamic stress. Amino acid sequence shows a marked interspecies diversity; the normal circulating form in humans contains 32 amino acid residues. Isoln from porcine brain: T. Sudoh et al., Nature 332, 78 (1988). Cloning of human BNP precursor: idem et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 159, 1427 (1989). Direct isoln from human heart: Y. Kambayashi et al., FEBS Lett. 259, 341 (1990). Use in prognosis of risk in acute coronary syndromes: J. A. de Lemos et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 345, 1014 (2001); in diagnosis of congestive heart failure: A. S. Maisel et al., ibid. 347, 161 (2002). Review: N. C. Davidson, A. D. Struthers, J. Hypertens. 12, 329-336 (1994); T. Takeda, M. Kohno, Hypertens. Res. 18, 259-266 (1995); of pathophysiological significance: M. Yoshibayashi et al., Eur. J. Endocrinol. 135, 265-268 (1996); of clinical experience: N. Valli et al., J. Lab. Clin. Med. 134, 437-444 (1999).
Derivative Type: Nesiritide
CAS Registry Number: 124584-08-3
Additional Names: Human brain natriuretic peptide-32; natriuretic factor-32 (human brain clone lhBNP57)
Trademarks: Natrecor (Scios)
Literature References: Clinical hemodynamic effects: L. S. Marcus et al., Circulation 94, 3184 (1996). Clinical trial in congestive heart failure: W. S. Colucci et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 343, 246 (2000).
Therap-Cat: In treatment of congestive heart failure.
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Natriuretic peptide B
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols NPPB; BNP
External IDs OMIM: 600295 HomoloGene: 81698 GeneCards: NPPB Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE NPPB 206801 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4879 n/a
Ensembl ENSG00000120937 n/a
UniProt P16860 n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002521 n/a
RefSeq (protein) NP_002512 n/a
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
11.92 – 11.92 Mb
n/a
PubMed search [1] n/a

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), now known as B-type natriuretic peptide or Ventricular Natriuretic Peptide (still BNP), is a 32-amino acid polypeptide secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). The release of BNP is modulated by calcium ions.[1] BNP is named as such because it was originally identified in extracts of porcine brain, although in humans it is produced mainly in the cardiac ventricles.

BNP is secreted along with a 76-amino acid N-terminal fragment (NT-proBNP) that is biologically inactive. BNP binds to and activates the atrial natriuretic factor receptors NPRA, and to a lesser extent NPRB, in a fashion similar to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) but with 10-fold lower affinity. The biological half-life of BNP, however, is twice as long as that of ANP, and that of NT-proBNP is even longer, making these peptides better targets than ANP for diagnostic blood testing.

The physiologic actions of BNP are similar to those of ANP and include decrease in systemic vascular resistance and central venous pressure as well as an increase in natriuresis. Thus, the net effect of BNP and ANP is a decrease in blood volume, which lowers systemic blood pressure and afterload, yielding an increase in cardiac output, partly due to a higher ejection fraction.