Calcitonin

Title: Calcitonin
CAS Registry Number: 9007-12-9
Additional Names: Thyrocalcitonin; TCA; TCT
Literature References: Calcium regulating hormone secreted from the mammalian thyroid gland and in non-mammalian species from the ultimobranchial gland. Postulation of a plasma-calcium lowering substance: Copp et al., Endocrinology 70, 638 (1962). Recognition as a hormone: Hirsch et al., ibid. 73, 244 (1963); of thyroid origin: Foster et al., Nature 202, 1303 (1964). Over-all action is to oppose the bone and renal effects of parathyroid hormone, q.v.; inhibits bone resorption of Ca2+, with accompanying hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia and decreased urinary Ca2+ concentrations. Also abolishes the osteolytic effect of toxic doses of vitamins A and D. Calcitonin is highly active biologically, e.g. 50 mg/min infused into a 100 g rat leads to a significant (1 mg/100 ml) decrease in the concn of the plasma calcium within 60 min (together with a corresponding fall in plasma phosphate). Activity is destroyed by trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, polyphenol oxidase; also by hydrogen peroxide oxidation, photooxidation, and treatment with N-bromosuccinimide. Calcitonin structures are single polypeptide chains containing 32 amino acid residues. Structure of porcine: Neher et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 917 (1968); Potts et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59, 1321 (1968); Bell et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 2704 (1968); eidem, Biochemistry 9, 1665 (1970). Synthesis of porcine: Rittel et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 924 (1968); Guttmann et al., ibid. 1155. Isoln of human calcitonin from non-pathological thyroid glands: Haymovits, Rosen, Endocrinology 81, 993 (1967); from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: Neher et al., Nature 220, 984 (1968); Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 1738 (1968); Neher, Riniker, DE 1929957 (1970 to Ciba), C.A. 73, 28902b (1970). Structure of human: Neher et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 1900 (1968). Synthesis of human: Sieber et al., ibid. 2057; J. Hirt et al., Rec. Trav. Chim. 98, 143 (1979). Biosynthetic studies: J. W. Jacobs et al., J. Biol. Chem. 254, 10600 (1979); S. G. Amara et al., ibid. 255, 2645 (1980). Amino acid sequence differs among mammalian species, salmon calcitonin showing a marked difference from that of the higher vertebrae as well as a more potent biological activity. Mechanism of action: E. M. Brown, G. D. Aurbach, Vitam. Horm. 38, 236 (1980). Anorectic activity in rats: W. J. Freed et al., Science 206, 850 (1979). Growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells in vitro: Y. Iwasaki et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 110, 235 (1983). Review of early literature: Munson, Hirsch, Clin. Orthop. 49, 209 (1966). Review of isoln, structure, synthesis: Behrens, Grinnan, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 38, 83 (1969); Potts et al., Vitam. Horm. 29, 41 (1971). Comprehensive review: Calcitonin, Proc. Symp. on Thyrocalcitonin and the C Cells, S. Taylor, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1968); Foster et al., "Calcitonin" in Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism, I. MacIntyre, Ed. (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1972) pp 93-124. Review of pharmacology and therapeutic use: J. C. Stevenson, I. M. A. Evans, Drugs 21, 257-272 (1981).
Derivative Type: Calcitonin, porcine
CAS Registry Number: 12321-44-7
Trademarks: Calcitar(e) (RPR); Staporos (Cassenne)
Derivative Type: Calcitonin, human synthetic
CAS Registry Number: 21215-62-3
Trademarks: Cibacalcin (Novartis)
Derivative Type: Calcitonin, salmon synthetic
CAS Registry Number: 47931-85-1
Additional Names: Salcatonin
Trademarks: Calciben (Firma); Calcimar (RPR); Calsyn (RPR); Calsynar (RPR); Catonin (Magis); Karil (Novartis); Miacalcic (Novartis); Miacalcin (Novartis); Miadenil (Francia); Osteocalcin (Tosi); Prontocalcin (Domp?; Rulicalcin (HMR); Salmotonin (Yamanouchi); Stalcin (Locatelli); Tonocalcin (Searle)
Literature References: Clinical trial in postmenopausal osteoporosis: C. H. Chesnut et al., Am. J. Med. 109, 267 (2000). LC determn in biological fluids: M. Aguiar et al., J. Chromatogr. B 818, 301 (2005).
Properties: See also Elcatonin.
Therap-Cat: Calcium regulator.
Keywords: Calcium Regulator.
Calcium 2-Ethylbutanoate Calcium 3-Aurothio-2-propanol-1-sulfonate Calcium Acetate Calcium Acetylsalicylate Calcium Aluminosilicate

Calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha

NMR solution structure of salmon calcitonin in SDS micelles.[1]
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols CALCA (; CALC1; CGRP; CGRP-I; CGRP1; CT; KC)
External IDs OMIM: 114130 MGI: 2151253 HomoloGene: 105263 ChEMBL: 5293 GeneCards: CALCA Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CALCA 210728 s at tn.png
PBB GE CALCA 210727 at tn.png
PBB GE CALCA 217495 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 796 12310
Ensembl ENSG00000110680 ENSMUSG00000030669
UniProt P01258 P70160
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001033952 NM_001033954
RefSeq (protein) NP_001029124 NP_001029126
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
14.99 – 14.99 Mb
Chr 7:
114.63 – 114.64 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body.[2] It acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca2+), opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH).[3] Calcitonin has been found in fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Its importance in humans has not been as well established as its importance in other animals, as its function is usually not significant in the regulation of normal calcium homeostasis.[4] It belongs to the calcitonin-like protein family.