Calixarenes

Title: Calixarenes
Literature References: Molecular baskets into which smaller molecules can fit. Name is derived from the Greek "calix" for "chalice" or "cup" and arene for the aryl residues; the name originally referred to the phenolic tetramer linked by methylene groups. The nomenclature uses calix[n]arene where n is the number of the aryl groups. Modifications to the phenol are indicated by prefixes; whereas total changes of the aryl group are indicated in front of the "arene". Prepn: A. Zinke, E. Ziegler, Ber. 77, 264 (1944); A. Zinke et al., Monatsh. Chem. 79, 438 (1948). Modification of basic structures: J. L. Atwood et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 32, 1093 (1993). Book: Calixarenes, C. D. Gutsche, Ed. (Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K., 1989) 222 pp.
Calmagite Calmodulin Calomelol Calotropin Calumba

A calixarene is a macrocycle or cyclic oligomer based on a hydroxyalkylation product of a phenol and an aldehyde.[1][2] The word calixarene is derived from calix or chalice because this type of molecule resembles a vase and from the word arene that refers to the aromatic building block. Calixarenes have hydrophobic cavities that can hold smaller molecules or ions and belong to the class of cavitands known in host-guest chemistry. Calixarene nomenclature is straightforward and involves counting the number of repeating units in the ring and include it in the name. A calix[4]arene has 4 units in the ring and a calix[6]arene has 6. A substituent in the meso position Rb is added to the name with a prefix C- as in C-methylcalix[6]arene.