Title: Carbon Disulfide
CAS Registry Number: 75-15-0
Additional Names: Carbon bisulfide; dithiocarbonic anhydride
Molecular Formula: CS2
Molecular Weight: 76.14
Percent Composition: C 15.77%, S 84.23%
Literature References: Minute amounts occur in coal tar and in crude petroleum. Prepd on an industrial scale by heating charcoal with vaporized sulfur; from sulfur and natural gas: Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 224-229. Laboratory purification: Glemser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry vol. 1, G. Brauer, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2nd ed., 1963) p 652. Review of production and uses: Bushell, Chem. Ind. (London) 1961, 1465; R. W. Timmerman in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 4 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1978) pp 742-757; of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Carbon Disulfide (PB97-121073, 1996) 252 pp.
Properties: Highly refractive, mobile, very flammable liq. Poisonous! The purest distillates ever obtained are reported to have a sweet, pleasing, and ethereal odor, while the usual commercial and reagent grades are foul smelling. Dec on standing for a long time. Burns with a blue flame to CO2 and SO2. Acute fire and explosion hazard, can be ignited by hot steam pipes. Flash pt, closed cup: -30°C. Ignition pt: 100°. Explosive range: 1 to 50% (v/v) in air. d40 1.29272; d415 1.27055; d420 1.2632; d430 1.24817. Vapors sink to the ground. Vapor density 2.67 (air = 1). mp -111.6°. bp1.0 -73.8°; bp10 -44.7°; bp100 -5.1°; bp400 28.0°; bp760 46.5°; bp(2 atm) 69.1°; bp(5 atm) 104.8°. Crit temp 280.0°; crit press. 72.9 atm. nD15 1.63189; nD20.1 1.62803; n23.5 1.62543. Surface tension at 20°: 32.25. Coefficient of viscosity at 20°: 0.363. Heat of vaporization at bp: 84.1 cal/g. Heat of fusion: 1.049 kcal/mole. Heat capacity at 24.3°: 18.17 cal/mole/deg: Brown, Manov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59, 500 (1937). Ebullioscopic constant: 2.35°. Dielectric constant at low frequencies: 2.641. Dipole moment: 0.0. Soly in water at 20°: 0.294%. Soly of water in CS2: <0.005%. Azeotrope with water bp 42.6°, contains 97.2% CS2. Misc with anhydr methanol, ethanol, ether, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, oils. Can be stored in iron, aluminum, glass, porcelain, Teflon.
Melting point: mp -111.6°
Boiling point: bp1.0 -73.8°; bp10 -44.7°; bp100 -5.1°; bp400 28.0°; bp760 46.5°; bp(2 atm) 69.1°; bp(5 atm) 104.8°; bp 42.6°
Flash point: Flash pt, closed cup: -30°C
Index of refraction: nD15 1.63189; nD20.1 1.62803; n23.5 1.62543
Density: d40 1.29272; d415 1.27055; d420 1.2632; d430 1.24817
CAUTION: Poisoning usually occurs from inhalation but also may be caused by ingestion and skin absorption. Direct contact with liquid or concentrated vapors may cause irritation of skin, eyes, mucous membranes; eye and skin burns; dermatitis. Potential symptoms of acute overexposure are headache, garlicky breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, vertigo, dizziness, poor sleep; CNS depression with respiratory paralysis. Potential symptoms of chronic overexposure are nervousness, anorexia, weight loss; psychosis; polyneuropathy; Parkinson-like syndrome; ocular changes; coronary heart disease; gastritis; kidney and liver injury; reproductive effects; marked psychic disturbances ranging from extreme irritability to mania with hallucinations, tremors, auditory and visual disturbances. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 52; Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section III, pp 90-93.
Use: In the manuf of rayon, carbon tetrachloride, xanthogenates, soil disinfectants, electronic vacuum tubes. Solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubbers.