Carbon Tetrachloride

Title: Carbon Tetrachloride
CAS Registry Number: 56-23-5
CAS Name: Tetrachloromethane
Additional Names: perchloromethane
Trademarks: Necatorina; Benzinoform (Mallinckrodt)
Molecular Formula: CCl4
Molecular Weight: 153.82
Percent Composition: C 7.81%, Cl 92.19%
Literature References: Obtained from carbon disulfide and chlorine in presence of a catalyst, e.g., SbCl5, Fe filings, or by the chlorination of hydrocarbons: Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 230-234; H. D. DeShon in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 5 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1979) pp 704-714. Toxicity data: Svirbely, J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 29, 382 (1947); E. Browning, Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents (Elsevier, New York, 1965) pp 173-188. Use in induction of experimental liver disease: P. Trivedi, A. P. Mowat, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 64, 25 (1983). Review of carcinogenic risk: IARC Monographs 20, 371-399 (1979); of toxicity studies: R. O. Recknagel et al., Pharmacol. Ther. 43, 139-154 (1989); of toxicology and environmental exposure: Environ. Health Criter. 208, 1-177 (1999); of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Carbon Tetrachloride (PB2006-100002, 2005) 361 pp.
Properties: Colorless, clear, nonflammable, heavy liquid; characteristic odor. May form phosgene when used to put out electrical fires. Use only when adequate ventilation is possible. d2525 1.589. bp 76.7°. mp -23°. nD20 1.4607. One ml dissolves in 2000 ml water; misc with alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether, carbon disulfide, petr ether, oils. LC50 for mice: 9528 ppm (Svirbely). LD50 in rats, mice, dogs (g/kg): 2.92, 12.1-14.4, 2.3 orally; LD50 in mice (g/kg): 4.1 i.p., 30.4 s.c. (IARC, 1979).
Melting point: mp -23°
Boiling point: bp 76.7°
Index of refraction: nD20 1.4607
Density: d2525 1.589
Toxicity data: LC50 for mice: 9528 ppm (Svirbely); LD50 in rats, mice, dogs (g/kg): 2.92, 12.1-14.4, 2.3 orally; LD50 in mice (g/kg): 4.1 i.p., 30.4 s.c. (IARC, 1979)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are CNS depression; drowsiness, dizziness, incoordination; nausea, vomiting; liver and kidney injury. Direct contact may cause skin and eye irritation; dermatitis through defatting action. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (PB2003-100121, 2003) p 54; Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology vol. 2E, G. D. Clayton, F. E. Clayton, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1994) p 4071-4080. This substance is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen: Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition (PB2005-104914, 2004) p III-44.
Use: As solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, resins; starting material in manuf of organic compds. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent). Formerly used as dry cleaning agent, fire extinguisher and grain fumigant.
Therap-Cat: Formerly as anthelmintic (Nematodes).
Therap-Cat-Vet: Anthelmintic.
Keywords: Anthelmintic (Nematodes).
Carbon Tetrafluoride Carbon Tetraiodide Carbon, Amorphous Carbonic Anhydrase Carbonyl Fluoride

Carbon tetrachloride
Structural formula of carbon tetrachloride Space-filling model carbon tetrachloride
CAS number 56-23-5 YesY
PubChem 5943
ChemSpider 5730 YesY
EC number 200-262-8
UN number 1846
KEGG C07561 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:27385 YesY
RTECS number FG4900000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula CCl4
Molar mass 153.82 g mol−1
Appearance colourless liquid
Odor ether-like odor
Density 1.5867 g cm−3 (liquid)

1.831 g cm−3 at −186 °C (solid)
1.809 g cm−3 at −80 °C (solid)

Melting point −22.92 °C; −9.26 °F; 250.23 K
Boiling point 76.72 °C; 170.10 °F; 349.87 K
Solubility in water 0.081 g/100 mL (25 °C)
Solubility soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, naphtha, CS2
log P 2.64
Vapor pressure 11.94 Pa at 20 °C
kH 2.76x10−2 atm-cu m/mol
Refractive index (nD) 1.4601
Crystal structure Monoclinic
Molecular shape Tetrahedral
MSDS External MSDS
EU Index 602-008-00-5
EU classification Toxic T Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
R-phrases R23/24/25, R40, R48/23, R59, R52/53
S-phrases (S1/2), S23, S36/37, S45, S59, S61
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
Flash point Non-flammable
Autoignition temperature 982 °C; 1,800 °F; 1,255 K
LD50 2350 mg/kg
Std enthalpy of
formation ΔfHo298
−135.4 kJ·mol−1 (liq)
Standard molar
entropy So298
216 J·mol−1·K−1 (liq)
Related compounds
Other cations Silicon tetrachloride
Germanium tetrachloride
Tin tetrachloride
Lead tetrachloride
Related chloromethanes Chloromethane
Related compounds Tetrafluoromethane
Supplementary data page
Structure and
n, εr, etc.
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being carbon tet in the cleaning industry, and as Halon 104 or Freon 10 in HVAC; see Table for others), is the inorganic compound with the formula CCl4. It was formerly widely used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent. It is a colourless liquid with a "sweet" smell that can be detected at low levels.

Both carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloromethane are acceptable names under IUPAC nomenclature.