Cellulose

Title: Cellulose
CAS Registry Number: 9004-34-6
Literature References: (C6H10O5)n. Polysaccharide with the glucose units linked as in cellobiose. Chief constituent of the fiber of plants; cotton is the purest natural form, contg about 90%. Rayon is regenerated cellulose. Books: C. Dorée, The Methods of Cellulose Chemistry (Chapman & Hall, London, 1947); T. Lieser, Kurzes Lehrbuch der Cellulosechemie (Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 1953); S. D. Antonovskii, Chemistry of Wood and Cellulose (Vsesoyuz. Zaochnyi Lesotekh Instit., Leningrad, 1954); E. Ott et al., Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives vols. 1-3 (Interscience, New York, 1954, 1955). Reviews: Several authors in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology vol. 3, N. M. Bikales, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1965) pp 131-539; Shafizadeh, Pure Appl. Chem. 35, 195-208 (1973); A. F. Turbak et al. in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 5 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1979) pp 70-89. Comprehensive review on constitution, conformation, size of molecule, fine structure and superstructure: H. Krässig, Papier (Darmstadt) 33, 9-20 (1979). Review of toxicity studies: R. L. Anderson et al., Cancer Lett. 63, 83-92 (1992).
Properties: White substance. Practically insol in water or other usual solvents. Dissolved by concd soln of zinc chloride, by ammoniacal copper hydroxide soln; also by caustic alkali with carbon disulfide.
Derivative Type: Microcrystalline Form
Additional Names: Avicel
Literature References: Prepn and manuf of crystallite cellulosic aggregates: Battista, Ind. Eng. Chem. 42, 502 (1950); Battista, Smith, US 2978446 (1961 to Am. Viscose); US 3141875 (1964 to FMC).
Properties: Non-fibrous powder. Particle shape: rigid rods. Refractive index: 1.55. Bulk density: 18-19 lb/cubic foot. Practically insol, but dispersible in water; practically insol in and resistant to dil acid; practically insol and inert in organic acids. Partially sol with swelling in dil alkali.
Index of refraction: Refractive index: 1.55
Density: Bulk density: 18-19 lb/cubic foot
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin, mucous membranes. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 56.
Use: Fibrous form is the basic material for the textile and paper industries. Nitrated it yields nitrocellulose used for manuf of explosives, collodion, lacquers. Basic material also for cellulose acetate, cellulose xanthate. Also used in chromatography and as ion exchange material especially in the form of derivatives such as DEAE-cellulose (diethylaminoethyl cellulose) and ECTEOLA-cellulose, q.v. Microcrystalline forms of cellulose are used as combination binder-disintegrants in tableting, as separatory medium in thin-layer and column chromatography. Colloidal cellulose particles aid in stabilization and emulsification of liquid and foam systems. May be used as pure cellulose raw-material. Incorporation of cellulose crystallite aggregates in foods to reduce caloric content: Battista, US 3023104 (1962 to American Viscose); also used in food industry as stabilizer, thickener, texturizer.
Cellulose Acetates Cellulose Ethyl Hydroxyethyl Ether Centaurein Centaury Centaury, American

Cellulose[1]
Identifiers
CAS number 9004-34-6 YesY
UNII SMD1X3XO9M YesY
EC-number 232-674-9
ChEMBL CHEMBL1201676 N
Properties
Molecular formula (C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
Appearance white powder
Density 1.5 g/cm3
Melting point decomposes
Solubility in water none
Hazards
EU Index not listed
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
1
1
0
Related compounds
Related compounds Starch
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.[2][3] Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms.[4] Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth.[5] The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50% and that of dried hemp is approximately 45%.[6][7][8]

Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton.[5]

Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha. Humans can digest cellulose to some extent,[9][10] however it mainly acts as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and is often referred to as a "dietary fiber".