Chlorofluorocarbons

Title: Chlorofluorocarbons
Additional Names: CFCs; FCCs
Literature References: Chemically stable series of chlorinated and fluorinated compounds usually with methane or ethane skeleton, marketed under general names such as Arcton (ICI) , Freon (DuPont) , Frigen (Hoechst) , Genetron (AlliedSignal) . Known collectively as CFCs, individually identified by a CFC code based on the "rule of 90". (To derive the chemical formula for CFC-12, e.g., add "90" to 12; the resulting number "102" indicates 1 carbon, 0 hydrogen, 2 fluorine yielding the formula CCl2F2.) Initial report on suitability as refrigerants: T. Midgley, Jr., A. L. Henne, Ind. Eng. Chem. 22, 542 (1930). Review including physical and chemical properties of various CFCs: E. Heiskel, Aerosol Rep. 22, 403-415 (1983). CFCs do not decompose in the lower atmosphere. Photodecomposition occurs in the stratosphere via absorption of uv radiation and subsequent release of atomic chlorine which can catalyze ozone breakdown. CFC-ozone depletion hypothesis: M. J. Molina, F. S. Rowland, Nature 249, 810 (1974). Reviews focusing on atmospheric chemistry of CFCs, uses, potential hydrogen-substituted replacements, environmental and regulatory issues: J. P. Cohn, BioScience 37, 647-650 (1987); R. Pool, Science 242, 666-668 (1988); F. S. Rowland, Environ. Conserv. 15, 101-115 (1988); L. B. Weisfeld, Plast. Compd. 1988, 15-22, 40-43; F. S. Rowland, Am. Sci. 77, 36-45 (1989). For prepn information see dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), cryofluorane (CFC-114).
Properties: Colorless, essentially odorless, nonflammable, noncorrosive. Miscible with aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, monovalent low molecular alcohols.
NOTE: Consult latest Government regulations on use as aerosol propellant.
Use: In aerosol propellants (CFC-11, 12, 113); air conditioning; refrigeration (CFC-12); blowing agents for making foam (CFC-11, 12); cleaning fluids (CFC-113); solvents for the electronics industry, bedding and packaging.
Chloroform Chlorogenic Acid Chlorogenin Chloromethyl Methyl Ether Chloronitrobenzene

A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane. They are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon. The most common representative is dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12 or Freon-12). Many CFCs have been widely used as refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications), and solvents. The manufacture of such compounds has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol, and are being replaced with products such as HFCs (e.g., R-410A), hydrocarbons, and CO2, because CFCs contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere.