Choline Alfoscerate

Title: Choline Alfoscerate
CAS Registry Number: 28319-77-9
CAS Name: 2-[[[(2R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropoxy]hydroxyphosphinyl]oxy]-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium hydroxide inner salt
Additional Names: D-choline hydroxide 2,3-dihydroxypropyl hydrogen phosphate inner salt; L-a-glycerylphosphorylcholine; sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine; L-a-GPC
Trademarks: Brezal (Novartis); Delecit (LPB); Gliatilin (Italfarmaco)
Molecular Formula: C8H20NO6P
Molecular Weight: 257.22
Percent Composition: C 37.36%, H 7.84%, N 5.45%, O 37.32%, P 12.04%
Literature References: Phospholipid; precursor in choline biosynthesis; intermediate in catabolic pathway of phosphatidylcholine. Isoln from bovine pancreas: G. Schmidt et al., J. Biol. Chem. 161, 523 (1945). Synthesis: E. Baer, M. Kates, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 70, 1394 (1948); and properties: N. H. Tattrie et al., Biochem. Prep. 6, 16 (1958). HPLC determn: G. Abbiati et al., J. Chromatogr. 566, 445 (1991). Metabolism and biodistribution: idem et al., Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 18, 173 (1993). Clinical pharmacology: N. Canal et al., Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol. 29, 103 (1991). Clinical pharmacokinetics: G. Gatti et al., ibid. 30, 331 (1992). Clinical study in multi-infarct dementia: L. Frattola et al., Curr. Ther. Res. 49, 683 (1991); in Alzheimer's type dementia: L. Parnetti et al., Drugs Aging 3, 159 (1993).
Properties: White crystals, mp 142.5-143°, sinters at 141°. Extremely hygroscopic. Sol in water. [a]D25 -2.7° (c = 2.7 in water, pH 2.5). [a]D25 -2.8° (c = 2.6 in water, pH 5.8).
Melting point: mp 142.5-143°
Optical Rotation: [a]D25 -2.7° (c = 2.7 in water, pH 2.5); [a]D25 -2.8° (c = 2.6 in water, pH 5.8)
Therap-Cat: Nootropic.
Keywords: Nootropic.
Choline Chloride Choline Dehydrocholate Choline Dihydrogen Citrate Choline Esterase Choline Salicylate