Chorionic Gonadotropin

Title: Chorionic Gonadotropin
Additional Names: Choriogonadotropin; CG
Literature References: Glycoprotein hormone synthesized by chorionic tissue of the placenta; found in blood and urine during pregnancy. Maintains the function of the corpus luteum and stimulates ovarian steroid secretion in the early stages of gestation. Bioactivity closely resembles that of luteinizing hormone. Structurally similar to LH, FSH, and TSH, q.q.v., all are dimers consisting of noncovalently linked a and b subunits. Within a species, the a-subunits of the four hormones are essentially identical, while the b-subunits, although exhibiting varying degrees of homology, are unique and believed to be responsible for the biological specificity of the individual hormones. Produced by trophoblastic cell neoplasms and used in the diagnosis and management of trophoblastic malignancies. Also produced by cancer cells of various histological types. Discovery in human pregnancy urine: S. Aschheim, B. Zondek, Klin. Wochenschr. 6, 1322 (1927); in serum of pregnant mares: H. H. Cole, G. H. Hart, Am. J. Physiol. 93, 57 (1930). Isoln of human CG: B. Zondek, S. Aschheim, Klin. Wochenschr. 7, 831 (1928); S. Gurin et al., J. Biol. Chem. 128, 525 (1939); P. A. Katzman et al., ibid. 148, 501 (1943). Review of early literature: J. A. Loraine, J. Reprod. Fertil. 12, 23-31 (1966). Purification and physicochemical properties: O. P. Bahl, J. Biol. Chem. 244, 567 (1969). Isoln of a and b subunits: N. Swaminathan, O. P. Bahl, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 40, 422 (1970); F. J. Morgan, R. E. Canfield, Endocrinology 88, 1045 (1971). Amino acid sequence of a-subunit: R. Bellesario et al., J. Biol. Chem. 248, 6796 (1973); of the b-subunit: R. B. Carlsen et al., ibid. 6810; F. J. Morgan et al., ibid. 250, 5247 (1975). Crystal structure: A. J. Lapthorn et al., Nature 369, 438 (1994). Purification using HPLC: M. A. Chlenov et al., J. Chromatogr. 631, 261 (1993). Comparison of gonadotropins of various species: J. G. Pierce, T. F. Parsons, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50, 465-495 (1981). Review of biosynthesis: R. O. Hussa, Endocr. Rev. 1, 268-294 (1980). Diagnostic use as a tumor marker: L. A. Cole et al., Cancer Res. 48, 1356 (1988); D. L. Blithe et al., Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 1, 394 (1990). Secretion in normal, nonpregnant humans: W. D. Odell et al., ibid. 418. Synthesis and expression by tumor cells: H. F. Acevedo et al., Cancer 76, 1467 (1995). Review of clinical assay methods: R. J. Norman et al., Ann. Clin. Biochem. 27, 183-194 (1990). Review of structure, secretion and bioactivity of equine CG: B. D. Murphy, S. D. Martinuk, Endocr. Rev. 12, 27-44 (1991).
Derivative Type: Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
CAS Registry Number: 9002-61-3
Additional Names: HCG; pregnancy urine extract; urinary hCG
Trademarks: Choragon (Ferring); Coriantin (Lepetit); Corulon (Intervet); Endocorion (ELEA); Physex (Leo Pharm); Predalon (Organon); Pregnesin (Serono); Pregnyl (Organon); Primogonyl (Schering); Profasi (Serono)
Properties: Stable in dry form. Freely sol in water; sol in aq glycerol and glycols. Insol in alcohol, acetone, ether. pI 2.95. mol wt ~39500 Da. a subunit consists of 92 amino acids; b subunit, 145 amino acids. Total carbohydrate content: ~30% by wt.
Derivative Type: Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin
CAS Registry Number: 9002-70-4
CAS Name: Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin
Additional Names: PMSG; serum gonadotropin
Trademarks: Seragon (Ferring); Serotropin (Teikoku)
Properties: Sol in water, dil glycerol and glycols. pI 2.60-2.65. a subunit consists of 96 amino acids; b subunit, 149 amino acids. Total carbohydrate content: ~45% by wt.
Derivative Type: Choriogonadotropin alfa
CAS Registry Number: 177073-44-8
CAS Name: Chorionic gonadotropin (human a-subunit protein moiety reduced) complex with chorionic gonadotropin (human b-subunit protein moiety reduced)
Additional Names: human chorionic gonadotropin, glycoform a; rhCG
Trademarks: Ovidrel (Serono); Ovitrelle (Serono)
Literature References: Recombinant human CG derived from genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary cells. Clinical trial in assisted reproductive technology: P. Chang et al., Fertil. Steril. 76, 67 (2001).
Therap-Cat: Gonad-stimulating principle.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Gonad-stimulating principle.
Keywords: Gonad-Stimulating Principle.
Chorismic Acid Chromafenozide Chromic Acetate Chromic Bromide Chromic Carbonate