Cinchona

Title: Cinchona
Additional Names: Calisaya bark; Peruvian bark; Cinchona bark; Jesuit's bark
Literature References: Dried bark of stem or root of various species of Cinchona, fam. Rubiaceae, largely of C. officinalis L. (C. ledgeriana Moens) cultivated mostly in Java, of C. officinalis L. (C. calisaya Wedd.) from Bolivia, of C. officinalis L. and C. micrantha R. & P. from Peru, of C. pubescens Vahl. (C. succirubra Pav.) from Ecuador and C. pitayensis Wedd. from Colombia. Habit. South America, cultivated mostly in Java, also in India. Constit. About 35 alkaloids; cinchotannic, quinic and quinovic acids; cinchona red; volatile oils. The alkaloid content varies according to the source of the bark. The cultivated bark contains 7-10% total alkaloids of which about 70% is quinine. Cinchona succirubra Pav. and some other varieties contain more cinchonidine and cinchonine and sometimes quinidine than the cultivated. The standardized method for the assay of cinchona, named "Brussels 1949" is published in the journal De Belgische Chemische Industrie (Ind. Chim. Belge) 15, 328-338 (1950).
Properties: On heating a small portion of the bark in a test tube a characteristic purple vapor is evolved. Dil H2SO4 extracts have a blue fluorescence.
Therap-Cat: Antimalarial.
Keywords: Antimalarial.
Cinchonamine Cinchonidine Cinchonine Cinchophen Cinchotoxine

Cinchona
Cinchona pubescens - flowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Cinchonoideae
Tribe: Cinchoneae[1]
Genus: Cinchona
L.
Species

about 38 species; see text

Cinchona or Quina is a genus of about 38 species in the family Rubiaceae, native to the tropical Andes forests of western South America.[2] They are medicinal plants, known as sources for quinine and other compounds.

The name of the genus is due to Carolus "Carl" Linnaeus, who named the tree in 1742 after a Countess of Chinchón, the wife of a viceroy of Peru, who, in 1638, was introduced by native Quechua healers to the medicinal properties of cinchona bark. Stories of the medicinal properties of this bark, however, are perhaps noted in journals as far back as the 1560s–1570s.[3]

It is the national tree of Ecuador[4] and Peru.[5]