|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Pregnancy cat.||C (AU) D (US)|
|Legal status||Prescription Only (S4) (AU) Schedule IV (CA) schedule Q (UK) Schedule IV (US)|
|Routes||Oral, I.M., I.V, sublingual|
|(what is this?)|
Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug having anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, sedative, and hypnotic properties. It is marketed under the trade name Rivotril by Roche in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Portugal, South Africa and Spain; Linotril and Clonotril in India, South Korea, and other parts of Europe; and under the trade name Klonopin by Roche in the United States. Other names, such as Ravotril, Rivatril, Iktorivil, Clonex, Paxam, Petril, Naze and Kriadex, are known throughout the world. Clonazepam has an unusually long elimination half-life of 18–50 hours, making it generally considered to be among the longest-acting benzodiazepines. Clonazepam is a chlorinated derivative of nitrazepam and therefore a chloro-nitrobenzodiazepine.
Clonazepam has an intermediate onset of action, with a peak blood level occurring one to four hours after oral administration. Long-term effects of benzodiazepines include tolerance, benzodiazepine dependence, and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, which occurs in one third of patients treated with clonazepam for longer than four weeks.
Benzodiazepines such as clonazepam have a fast onset of action, high effectivity rate, and low toxicity in overdose; however, as with most medications, it may have drawbacks due to adverse or paradoxical effects. The benzodiazepine clorazepate may be an alternative to clonazepam due to a slow onset of tolerance and its availability in a slow-release formula to counter fluctuations in blood levels. The pharmacological property of clonazepam, as with other benzodiazepines, is the enhancement of the neurotransmitter GABA via modulation of the GABAA receptor.