Dextran

Title: Dextran
CAS Registry Number: 9004-54-0
Trademarks: Gentran (Baxter); Hemodex (Alstoe); Intradex (Dextran Prod. Ltd.); Promit (Pharmacia)
Literature References: A term applied to polysaccharides produced by bacteria growing on a sucrose substrate, contg a backbone of D-glucose units linked predominantly a-D(1®6). Several organisms produce dextrans but only Leuconostoc mesenteroides and L. dextranicum (Lactobacteriaceae) have been used commercially. Chemical and physical properties of the dextrans vary with the methods of production. Native dextrans usually have high mol wt; lower mol wt clinical dextrans usually prepared by depolymerization of native dextrans or by synthesis. All dextrans are composed exclusively of a-D-glucopyranosyl units, differing only in degree of branching and chain length. Prepn: Tarr, Hibbert, Can. J. Res. 5, 414 (1931); Novak, Stoycos, US 2841578 (1958 to Commonwealth Eng. of Ohio). Enzymic synthesis: Sugg, Hehre, J. Immunol. 43, 119 (1942); Behrens, Ringpfeil, US 3044940 (1962 to Serum Werk Bernburg). The crude dextran may be isolated from the culture by precipitation with methanol. Continuous dialysis process: Shurter, US 2717853 (1955 to C.S.C.). Elimination of pyrogens: Levi, Lozinski, US 2762727 (1956 to Frosst). Method of producing clinical dextran: Novak, Witt, US 2972567 (1961). Structure studies: Fowler et al., Can. J. Res. B15, 486 (1937); Fairhead et al., ibid. B16, 151 (1938); Peat et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1939, 581; Goldstein, Whelan, ibid. 1962, 170, 176. 13C-NMR structure study: F. R. Seymour et al., Carbohydr. Res. 51, 179 (1976). Reviews: Evans, Hibbert, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. 2, 204 (1946); Neely, ibid. 15, 341 (1960); Ricketts, Prog. Org. Chem. 5, 73 (1961); Murphy, Whistler, in Industrial Gums, R. L. Whistler, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2nd ed., 1973) pp 513-542.
Derivative Type: Dextran 40
Additional Names: LMD; LMWD; LVD
Trademarks: Gentran 40 (Baxter); Rheomacrodex (Medisan)
Literature References: Produced by action of L. mesenteroides on sucrose; average mol wt: 40,000.
Derivative Type: Dextran 70
Trademarks: Gentran 70 (Baxter); Hyskon (Pharmacia); Macrodex (Pharmacia)
Literature References: Average mol wt: 70,000.
Use: In soft center confections, as a partial substitute for barley malt. Mixed ethers and esters of dextran can be used in lacquers.
Therap-Cat: Plasma volume expander; Dextran 40 also as blood flow adjuvant.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Plasma extender.
Keywords: Plasma Volume Expander.
Dextran Sulfate Sodium Dextranase Dextranomer Dextri-Maltose? Dextrin

Dextran
Dextran-2.png
Dextran ball-and-stick.png
Identifiers
CAS number 9004-54-0 YesY
KEGG C00372 YesY
ATC code B05AA05
Properties
Molecular formula H(C6H10O5)xOH
Molar mass Variable
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Dextran is a complex, branched glucan (polysaccharide made of many glucose molecules) composed of chains of varying lengths (from 3 to 2000 kilodaltons). It is used medicinally as an antithrombotic (anti-platelet), to reduce blood viscosity, and as a volume expander in anemia.[1]

The straight chain consists of α-1,6 glycosidic linkages between glucose molecules, while branches begin from α-1,3 linkages. (For information on the numbering of carbon atoms in glucose, see the glucose article.) Dextran is synthesized from sucrose by certain lactic-acid bacteria, the best-known being Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Streptococcus mutans. Dental plaque is rich in dextrans.[2] Dextran is also formed by the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus brevis to create the crystals of tibicos, a water kefir fermented beverage which supposedly has some health benefits.[citation needed]

Dextran was first discovered by Louis Pasteur as a microbial product in wine.[3]