Dextrin

Title: Dextrin
CAS Registry Number: 9004-53-9
Additional Names: Pyrodextrin; torrefaction dextrin
Literature References: (C6H10O5)n.xH2O. Produced by the dry heating of unmodified starches. The term also includes products resulting from enzyme or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of wet starch. Review: R. W. Satterthwaite, D. J. Iwinski, in Industrial Gums, R. L. Whistler, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2nd ed., 1973) pp 577-599.
Derivative Type: British gum
Additional Names: Starch gum
Properties: Produced at high temp in the absence of acid. Dark brown color, odorous. High viscosity; very sol in cold water. Does not reduce Fehling's soln; gives reddish-brown color with iodine.
Derivative Type: Canary dextrin
Additional Names: Yellow dextrin
Properties: Hydrolyzed at high temp for long period of time in the presence of small amts of acid. Light brown to yellow color, slight odor. Low viscosity; very sol in cold water.
Derivative Type: White dextrin
Properties: Hydrolyzed at low temp for short period of time in the presence of large amts of acid. White color, odorless. Slightly sol in cold water giving a red color with iodine. Very sol in hot water giving a blue color with iodine.
Use: Excipient for dry extracts and pills; for preparing emulsions and dry bandages; for thickening dye pastes and mordants used in printing fabrics in fast colors; sizing paper and fabrics; printing tapestries; preparing felt; manuf printer's inks, glues and mucilage; polishing cereals; in matches, fireworks, and explosives.
Dextromoramide Dezocine DFDD DFDT d-Fenchone

Dextrin
Poly-(1-4)-alpha-D-Glucose.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 9004-53-9 YesY
PubChem 62698
UNII 2NX48Z0A9G YesY
KEGG C00721 YesY
Properties
Molecular formula (C6H10O5)n
Molar mass variable
Appearance white or yellow powder
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch[1] or glycogen.[2] Dextrins are mixtures of polymers of D-glucose units linked by α-(1→4) or α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.

Dextrins can be produced from starch using enzymes like amylases, as during digestion in the human body and during malting and mashing,[3] or by applying dry heat under acidic conditions (pyrolysis or roasting). The latter process is used industrially, and also occurs on the surface of bread during the baking process, contributing to flavor, color, and crispness. Dextrins produced by heat are also known as pyrodextrins. During roasting under acid condition the starch hydrolyses and short chained starch parts partially rebranch with α-(1,6) bonds to the degraded starch molecule.[4]

Dextrins are white, yellow, or brown powders that are partially or fully water-soluble, yielding optically active solutions of low viscosity. Most can be detected with iodine solution, giving a red coloration; one distinguishes erythrodextrin (dextrin that colours red) and achrodextrin (giving no colour).

White and yellow dextrins from starch roasted with little or no acid is called British gum.

A dextrin with α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds