Dichlorvos

Title: Dichlorvos
CAS Registry Number: 62-73-7
CAS Name: Phosphoric acid 2,2-dichloroethenyl dimethyl ester
Additional Names: phosphoric acid 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl ester; O,O-dimethyl O-(2,2-dichlorovinyl) phosphate; dichlorophos; dichlorovos; DDVP
Manufacturers' Codes: SD-1750
Trademarks: Atgard (Boehringer, Ing.); Dedevap (Bayer CropSci.); Divipan (Makhteshim-Agan); Doom (United Phosphorus); Nuvan (Syngenta); Task (Boehringer, Ing.); Vapona (Boehringer, Ing.)
Molecular Formula: C4H7Cl2O4P
Molecular Weight: 220.98
Percent Composition: C 21.74%, H 3.19%, Cl 32.09%, O 28.96%, P 14.02%
Literature References: Cholinesterase inhibitor. Prepn: Whetstone, Harman, US 2956073 (1960 to Shell). Toxicity: T. B. Gaines, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 14, 515 (1969). Review of carcinogenicity studies: M. D. Reuber, Clin. Toxicol. 18, 47-84 (1981); of toxicology and human exposure: Toxicological Profile for Dichlorvos (PB98-101124, 1997) 248 pp.
Properties: Liquid. Practically non-flammable. d425 1.415. bp20 140°; bp1.0 84°; bp0.5 72°; bp0.01 30°. nD25 1.451. Vapor pressure at 20°: 1.2 ´ 10-2 mm Hg. Misc with alcohol and most non-polar solvents. Soly in water: about 1 g/100 ml; in glycerol: about 0.5 g/100 ml. LD50 orally in male, female rats: 80, 56 mg/kg (Gaines).
Boiling point: bp20 140°; bp1.0 84°; bp0.5 72°; bp0.01 30°
Index of refraction: nD25 1.451
Density: d425 1.415
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in male, female rats: 80, 56 mg/kg (Gaines)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are miosis, aching eyes; rhinorrhea; headache; chest tightening, wheezing, laryngeal spasms and salivation; cyanosis; anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea; sweating; muscle fasciculation, paralysis, giddiness and ataxia; convulsions; low blood pressure, cardiac irregularities; irritation of eyes and skin. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 102.
Use: Insecticide.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Anthelmintic, insecticide.
Diclazuril Diclobutrazol Diclofenac Diclofop-methyl Diclosulam

Dichlorvos
Dichlorvos Structural Formulae .V.1.svg
Dichlorvos3d.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Legal status  ?
Identifiers
CAS number 62-73-7 YesY
ATCvet code QP52AB03 QP53AF04
PubChem CID 3039
ChemSpider 2931 YesY
UNII 7U370BPS14 YesY
KEGG D03791 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:34690 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL167911 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C4H7Cl2O4P 
Mol. mass 220.98 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Dichlorvos or 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (Trade Names: DDVP, Vapona, etc.) is a highly volatile organophosphate, widely used as an organophosphorus insecticide to control household pests, in public health, and protecting stored product from insects. It is effective against mushroom flies, aphids, spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and whiteflies in greenhouse, outdoor fruit, and vegetable crops. It is also used in the milling and grain handling industries and to treat a variety of parasitic worm infections in dogs, livestock, and humans. It is fed to livestock to control bot fly larvae in the manure. It acts against insects as both a contact and a stomach poison. It is available as an aerosol and soluble concentrate. It is also used in pet collars and "no-pest strips" as pesticide-impregnated plastic. In this form it has recently been labeled for use against bed bugs.[citation needed]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency first considered a ban on DDVP in 1981. Since then it has been close to being banned on several occasions, but continues to be available. Major concerns are over acute and chronic toxicity. There is no conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity to date, however a 2010 study found that each 10-fold increase in urinary concentration of organophosphate metabolites was associated with a 55% to 72% increase in the odds of ADHD in children.[1][2][3]

Dichlorvos is absorbed through all routes of exposure. Since it is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, its overdose symptoms are weakness, headache, tightness in chest, blurred vision, salivation, sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.

Dichlorvos damages DNA of insects in museum collections.[4]