Disilane

Title: Disilane
CAS Registry Number: 1590-87-0
Additional Names: Disilicoethane; disilicon hexahydride; silicoethane; disilicane
Molecular Formula: H6Si2
Molecular Weight: 62.22
Percent Composition: H 9.72%, Si 90.28%
Line Formula: Si2H6
Literature References: Obtained by separation of mixed silanes prepd from magnesium silicide and hydrochloric acid: Moissan, Smiles, Compt. Rend. 134, 569, 1549 (1902); Stock, Somiesky, Ber. 49, 111 (1916); 54B, 524 (1921); 56B, 247 (1923); Culbertson, US 2551571 (1951 to Union Carbide); prepd by conversion of silane to higher silanes in an ozonizer type electric discharge: Spanier, MacDiarmid, Inorg. Chem. 1, 432 (1962).
Properties: Gas; repulsive odor. d4-25 0.686. mp -132.5°. bp -14.5°. Dec 300°. Ignites spontaneously in air. Slowly dec in water. Explodes on contact with sulfur hexafluoride; reacts vigorously with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. Sol in carbon disulfide, ethyl alcohol, benzene, and ethyl silicate. Potassium hydroxide liberates hydrogen.
Melting point: mp -132.5°
Boiling point: bp -14.5°
Density: d4-25 0.686
CAUTION: A powerful irritant.
Disodium Dihydrogen Hypophosphate Disodium Phenyl Phosphate Disofenin Disophenol Disparlure

Disilane
Structural formula of disilane Spacefill model of disilane
Identifiers
CAS number 1590-87-0 YesY
PubChem 74123
ChemSpider 66736 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:30597 YesY
Gmelin Reference 368
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula H6Si2
Molar mass 62.22 g mol−1
Appearance Colourless gas
Density 2.7 g dm-3
Melting point −132 °C; −206 °F; 141 K
Boiling point −14 °C; 7 °F; 259 K
Structure
Dipole moment 0 D
Hazards
Main hazards Extremely flammable
Related compounds
Related disilanes Hexamethyldisilane
Related compounds Ethane
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Disilane is a chemical compound with chemical formula Si2H6 that was identified in 1902 by Henri Moissan and Samuel Smiles (1877–1953). Moissan and Smiles reported disilane as being among the products formed by the action of dilute acids on metal silicides. Although these reactions had been previously investigated by Friedrich Woehler and Heinrich Buff between 1857 and 1858, Moissan and Smiles were the first to explicitly identify disilane. They referred to disilane as silicoethane. Higher members of the homologous series SinH2n+2 formed in these reactions were subsequently identified by Carl Somiesky (sometimes spelled "Karl Somieski") and Alfred Stock.

At standard temperature and pressure, disilane is a colourless, acrid gas. Disilane and ethane have similar structures, although disilane is much more reactive. Other compounds of the general formula Si2X6 (X = hydride, halide, alkyl, aryl, and mixtures of these groups) are called disilanes.