Title: Endothelin
CAS Registry Number: 117399-94-7
Additional Names: Endothelin-1; ET-1
Literature References: Potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by mammalian vascular endothelial cells; present in low concentrations in normal serum. Composed of 21 amino acid residues; mol wt ~2500 Da. Isoln, characterization and cloning of porcine endothelin: M. Yanagisawa et al., Nature 332, 411 (1988). Structural identity of porcine and human endothelin: Y. Itoh et al., FEBS Lett. 231, 440 (1988). Structural similarity with the snake venom toxins, sarafotoxins S6: C. Y. Lee, V. A. Chiappinelli, Nature 335, 303 (1988); C. Takasaki et al., ibid. 303. Identification in serum by radioimmunoassay: K. Ando et al., FEBS Lett. 245, 164 (1989). Two additional isoforms, known as endothelin-2 and endothelin-3, have been identified. Structures and comparative pharmacology of human endothelin isopeptides: A. Inoue et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 2863 (1989). Mechanism of action study: Y. Hirata et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154, 868 (1988). Possible role in acute renal failure: J. D. Firth et al., Lancet 2, 1179 (1988). In vivo effects on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics: H. L. Lippton et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 66, 1008 (1989). Review: T. Masaki, J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 13, Suppl. 5, S1-S4 (1989).
Endralazine Endrin Enduracidin Enfenamic Acid Enflurane

Endothelin family
1EDN human endothelin1 02.png
Symbol Endothelin
Pfam PF00322
InterPro IPR001928
SCOP 1edp
OPM superfamily 156
OPM protein 3cmh
Endothelin 1
Symbol EDN1
Entrez 1906
HUGO 3176
OMIM 131240
RefSeq NM_001955
UniProt P05305
Other data
Locus Chr. 6 p23-p24
Endothelin 2
Symbol EDN2
Entrez 1907
HUGO 3177
OMIM 131241
RefSeq NM_001956
UniProt P20800
Other data
Locus Chr. 1 p34
Endothelin 3
Symbol EDN3
HUGO 3178
OMIM 131242
RefSeq NM_000114
UniProt P14138
Other data
Locus Chr. 20 q13.2-q13.3

Endothelins are proteins that constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure. They are normally kept in balance by other mechanisms, but when they are over-expressed, they contribute to high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart disease.

Endothelins are 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptides produced primarily in the endothelium having a key role in vascular homeostasis. Endothelins are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain.[1][2]