Endothelin

Title: Endothelin
CAS Registry Number: 117399-94-7
Additional Names: Endothelin-1; ET-1
Literature References: Potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by mammalian vascular endothelial cells; present in low concentrations in normal serum. Composed of 21 amino acid residues; mol wt ~2500 Da. Isoln, characterization and cloning of porcine endothelin: M. Yanagisawa et al., Nature 332, 411 (1988). Structural identity of porcine and human endothelin: Y. Itoh et al., FEBS Lett. 231, 440 (1988). Structural similarity with the snake venom toxins, sarafotoxins S6: C. Y. Lee, V. A. Chiappinelli, Nature 335, 303 (1988); C. Takasaki et al., ibid. 303. Identification in serum by radioimmunoassay: K. Ando et al., FEBS Lett. 245, 164 (1989). Two additional isoforms, known as endothelin-2 and endothelin-3, have been identified. Structures and comparative pharmacology of human endothelin isopeptides: A. Inoue et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 2863 (1989). Mechanism of action study: Y. Hirata et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154, 868 (1988). Possible role in acute renal failure: J. D. Firth et al., Lancet 2, 1179 (1988). In vivo effects on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics: H. L. Lippton et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 66, 1008 (1989). Review: T. Masaki, J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 13, Suppl. 5, S1-S4 (1989).
Endralazine Endrin Enduracidin Enfenamic Acid Enflurane

Endothelin family
1EDN human endothelin1 02.png
Identifiers
Symbol Endothelin
Pfam PF00322
InterPro IPR001928
PROSITE PDOC00243
SCOP 1edp
SUPERFAMILY 1edp
OPM superfamily 156
OPM protein 3cmh
Endothelin 1
Identifiers
Symbol EDN1
Entrez 1906
HUGO 3176
OMIM 131240
RefSeq NM_001955
UniProt P05305
Other data
Locus Chr. 6 p23-p24
Endothelin 2
Identifiers
Symbol EDN2
Entrez 1907
HUGO 3177
OMIM 131241
RefSeq NM_001956
UniProt P20800
Other data
Locus Chr. 1 p34
Endothelin 3
Identifiers
Symbol EDN3
HUGO 3178
OMIM 131242
RefSeq NM_000114
UniProt P14138
Other data
Locus Chr. 20 q13.2-q13.3

Endothelins are proteins that constrict blood vessels and raise blood pressure. They are normally kept in balance by other mechanisms, but when they are over-expressed, they contribute to high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart disease.

Endothelins are 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptides produced primarily in the endothelium having a key role in vascular homeostasis. Endothelins are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain.[1][2]