Enoxaparin

Title: Enoxaparin
Literature References: Low molecular weight fragment of heparin, q.v., prepd by depolymerization of a benzylic ester of porcine mucosal heparin. The majority of components present a 2-O-sulfo-a-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronic acid structure at the non-reducing end and a 2-N,6-O-disulfo-D-glucosamine structure at the reducing end of the chain. Average mol wt ~4500 daltons. Prepn: J. Mardiguian, EP 40144 (1981 to Pharmindustrie), C.A. 96, 218191s (1982). Determn in human plasma: L. Bara et al., Haemostasis 17, 127 (1987). Symposium on pharmacology and clinical efficacy: ibid. 16, 69-188 (1986). Review of pharmacology and use in prevention and treatment of deep venous thrombosis: M. M. Buckley, E. M. Sorkin, Drugs 44, 465-497 (1992); in unstable angina: S. Noble, C. M. Spencer, ibid. 56, 259-272 (1998).
Derivative Type: Sodium salt
Manufacturers' Codes: PK-10169; RP-54563
Trademarks: Clexane (Aventis); Lovenox (Aventis)
Therap-Cat: Antithrombotic.
Keywords: Antithrombotic.
Enoximone Enoxolone Enprostil Enrofloxacin Ensulizole

Enoxaparin sodium
EnoxaparinSodium.png
Enoxaparin sodium ball-and-stick.png
Clinical data
Trade names Lovenox, Clexane
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a696006
Licence data US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat. B
Legal status POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes Subcutaneous (SC) Injection and intravenous (IV) per package insert
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 92%
Protein binding 80% bound-albumin
Metabolism primarily by kidneys
Half-life 4.5 hours
Identifiers
CAS number 9005-49-6 YesY
ATC code B01AB05
PubChem CID 772
DrugBank DB01225
UNII 8NZ41MIK1O N
KEGG D07510 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1201685 N
Chemical data
Formula (C26H40N2O36S5)n
Mol. mass 4500 daltons (average)
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin marketed under the trade names Lovenox, Xaparin and Clexane, among others. It is an anticoagulant used to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and is given as a subcutaneous injection (by a health care provider or the patient). Its use is evolving in acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Enoxaparin is manufactured by Sanofi and is derived from the intestinal mucosa of pigs. Generic versions are available from Amphastar Pharmaceuticals and Sandoz.