Fennel

Title: Fennel
Additional Names: Large fennel; sweet fennel
Literature References: Dried, ripe fruit of cultivated varieties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Umbelliferae. Habit. Southern Europe, Western Asia, widely cultivated. Constit. 2-6% volatile oil, fixed oil, protein, organic acids and flavonoids. Clinical trial of fennel oil emulsion in infantile colic: I. Alexandrovich et al., Alt. Ther. Health Med. 9, 58 (2003). Review: F. S. D'Amelio, Sr., Botanicals (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999) pp 105-106.
Derivative Type: Volatile oil
CAS Registry Number: 8006-84-6
Additional Names: Oil of fennel
Literature References: Constit. 50-70% trans-anethole, up to 20% (+)-fenchone, methylchavicol, anisaldehyde, terpenoids including a-pinene, limonene, a-phellandrene.
Properties: Colorless or pale yellow liquid with characteristic odor of fennel. d2525 0.953-0.973. aD25 +12 to +24°. nD20 1.532-1.543. Slightly sol in water; sol in 1 vol 90% or in 8 vols 80% alcohol; very sol in chloroform, ether. Keep well closed, cool and protected from light.
Optical Rotation: aD25 +12 to +24°
Index of refraction: nD20 1.532-1.543
Density: d2525 0.953-0.973
Use: Flavoring agent in foods and pharmaceuticals. Used in eye washes and in facial steams to soothe and clean skin.
Therap-Cat: Carminative.
Fenoldopam Fenoprofen Fenoterol Fenoverine Fenoxanil

For giant fennel, see Ferula communis. Not to be confused with Nigella sativa, also called fennel flower
Fennel
Foeniculum vulgare
Fennel in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
Genus: Foeniculum
Mill.
Species: F. vulgare
Binomial name
Foeniculum vulgare
Mill.

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). It is a member of the family Apiaceae (formerly the Umbelliferae). It is a hardy, perennial, umbelliferous herb, with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.

It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe.[citation needed] Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.

Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the mouse moth and the anise swallowtail.