Title: Garlic
Additional Names: Allium
Literature References: Strongly scented perennial herb, Allium sativum L., Liliaceae, used extensively in foods and in traditional medicine to treat respiratory infections. Habit. Central Asia, Southern Europe, U.S., cultivated worldwide. Constit. Enzymes, volatile oil (0.1-0.36%), carbohydrates (26-30%), protein and amino acids, lipids, minerals,vitamins, saponins. Upon bruising of the bulb, the enzyme allinase converts alliin to allicin, q.q.v., the source of the garlic odor. Description and uses: A. Y. Leung, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980) pp 176-178. Review of chemistry: E. Block, Sci. Am. 252, 114-119 (March, 1985). Series of articles on cardiovascular effects: Br. J. Clin. Pract. 44, Suppl. 69, 1-39 (1990). Review of antioxidant properties and therapeutic potential in aging: K. Rahman, Ageing Res. Rev. 2, 39-56 (2003).
Derivative Type: Volatile oil
CAS Registry Number: 8000-78-0
Literature References: Obtained by steam distillation of the crushed bulb. Constit. Ajoene, alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, methyl allyl trisulfide, allyl sulfide, terpenes including citral, geraniol, linalool, a- and b-phellandrene. Brief review: E. Guenther, The Essential Oils vol. 6 (Van Nostrand, New York, 1952) pp 67-69. Comprehensive description: N. A. Shaath et al., Dev. Food Sci. 37B, 2025 (1995).
Properties: Clear yellow to red-orange liquid; strong garlic odor. d2525 1.050-1.095. nD20 1.550-1.580. Sol in most fixed oils, mineral oil, incompletely sol in alcohol. Insol in glycerin, propylene glycol. Keep well closed, cool and protected from light.
Index of refraction: nD20 1.550-1.580
Density: d2525 1.050-1.095
Use: As a spice and seasoning in foods.
Therap-Cat: In treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia.
Garryine Gastrins Gastrodia Gastrodin Gatifloxacin

Allium sativum, known as garlic, from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 1793.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. sativum
Binomial name
Allium sativum

Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium.

Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive,[1] and rakkyo.[2] With a history of human use of over 7,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia,[3] and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent seasoning in Asia, Africa, and Europe. It was known to Ancient Egyptians, and has been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes.[4]