Title: Gastrodia
Additional Names: Chi-jian; red arrow
Literature References: Parasitic herbaceous plant, Gastrodia elata Blume, Orchidaceae; used in Asian traditional medicine as an analgesic and anticonvulsant. Medicinal portion is the dried tuber, known as tianma. Growth is dependent on 2 fungi, Armillaria mellea for nutrients and Mycena osmundicola for seed germination. Habit. Woodlands of Japan, Korea and the central provinces of China. Constit. Gastrodin, vanillin, b-sitosterol, q.q.v., vanillyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzyl aldehyde, parishin, gastrodioside. Isoln of constituents: H. Taguchi et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull. 29, 55 (1981). HPLC determn of active constituents in tuber extracts: C. L. Liu et al., Chromatographia 55, 317 (2002). Effects on learning and memory in rats: C.-R. Wu et al., Planta Med. 62, 317 (1996); on amyloid b peptide-induced cell death: H.-J. Kim et al., J. Ethnopharmacol. 84, 95 (2003). Review of constituents and pharmacology: W. Tang, Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992) pp 545-548. Review of life cycle and cultivation: J. Xu, S. Guo, Chin. Med. J. 113, 686-692 (2000).
Gastrodin Gatifloxacin Gaultherin GDNF Gefarnate

Gastrodia elata in bloom
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Gastrodieae
Subtribe: Gastrodiinae
Genus: Gastrodia
R. Br.
Selected Species
  • Gastrodia africana
  • Gastrodia appendiculata
  • Gastrodia autumnalis
  • Gastrodia confusa
  • Gastrodia elata
  • Gastrodia flavilabella
  • Gastrodia fontinalis
  • Gastrodia gracillis
  • Gastrodia hiemails
  • Gastrodia javanica
  • Gastrodia peichatieniana
  • Gastrodia pubilabiata
  • Gastrodia sesamoides
  • Gastrodia theana[1]
  • Gastrodia tuberculata
  • Gamoplexis Falc.

Gastrodia is a genus of achlorophyllous orchid with about 40 species.

G. elata is a traditional Chinese herb, Tian Ma (Chinese: 天麻), and is commonly used in China to treat hypertension, improve circulation and resolve headaches.