Title: Ginkgo
Additional Names: Maidenhair tree; kew tree
Literature References: Ginkgo biloba Linn; the only living member of the Ginkgoaceae. Valued as a street and park tree, the ripe fruit gives off a foul odor. The seeds and leaves have been used in traditional medicine for asthma and vascular disease. Habit. China, Japan, cultivated in Eastern U.S. and Canada. A wide variety of compounds have been identified in the fruit, leaves and bark including: ginkgolides, bilobalide, q.q.v., biflavones, flavonol glycosides. Fruit pulp contains toxic principles: ginkgolic acid, ginkgol, bilobol. Analysis of constituents of leaves: S. Furukawa, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. Jpn. 19, 27 (1932); 21, 273 (1933), C.A. 27, 303, 5745 (1933). Isoln and characterization of biflavonyl constituents of ginkgo leaves: W. Baker et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1963, 1477; of phenolic constituents: K. Weinges et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 18, 539 (1968). Isoln of ginkgolides from root bark: M. Maruyama et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 1967, 299-326. HPLC determn of biflavones in leaf extracts: F. Briançon-Scheid et al., Planta Med. 49, 204 (1983); of terpenes: P. G. Pietta et al., Chromatographia 29, 251 (1990). HPLC fingerprint analysis of leaf extracts: Y.-B. Ji et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1066, 97 (2005). Reviews: W. Tang, G. Eisenbrand, Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992) pp 555-565; P. Houghton, Pharm. J. 253, 122-123 (1994).
Derivative Type: EGb 761
Additional Names: Extractum Ginkgo biloba 761
Trademarks: Rökan (Intersan); Tanakan (Ipsen); Tebonin (Schwabe)
Literature References: A defined extract obtained from the leaves: P. Kloss, H. Jaggy, DE 2117429 (1972 to Willmar Schwabe), C.A. 78, 47787 (1973). Clinical evaluation in arterial insufficiency: U. Bauer, Arzneim.-Forsch. 34, 716 (1984). Clinical trial in dementia: P. L. Le Bars et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 278, 1327 (1997). Book: F. V. DeFeudis, Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761): Pharmacological Activities and Clinical Applications (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991) 187 pp.
Therap-Cat: Nootropic. In treatment of vascular insufficiency.
Ginkgolides Giractide Girard Reagents Gitalin Gitogenin

Temporal range: 199.6–0Ma
Jurassic[1] to Recent
Ginkgo biloba Eocene, McAbee, B.C., Canada
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Ginkgophyta
Class: Ginkgoopsida
Order: Ginkgoales
Family: Ginkgoaceae
Genus: Ginkgo
L. [2]
  • Ginkgo adiantoides
  • Ginkgo apodes
  • Ginkgo biloba
  • Ginkgo cranei
  • Ginkgo digitata
  • Ginkgo dissecta
  • Ginkgo gardneri
  • Ginkgo ginkgoidea
  • Ginkgo huolinhensis
  • Ginkgo huttonii
  • Ginkgo yimaensis
Synonyms [3]

Salisburia Sm.

Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants. The scientific name is also used as the English name. The genus first appeared in the Permian, 250 million years ago, possibly derived from "seed ferns" of the order Peltaspermales. The rate of evolution within the genus has been slow, and almost all its species had become extinct by the end of the Pliocene; the exception is the sole living species, Ginkgo biloba, which is only found in the wild in China, but is cultivated across the world. The relationships between ginkgos and other groups of plants are not fully resolved.