Glucagon

Title: Glucagon
CAS Registry Number: 9007-92-5
Additional Names: Glukagon; hyperglycemic-glycogenolytic factor; HG-factor; HGF
Literature References: Polypeptide hormone produced in the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas; stimulates hepatic glucose output. Identification as hyperglycemic factor in pancreatic extracts: J. R. Murlin et al., J. Biol. Chem. 56, 253 (1923); C. P. Kimball, J. R. Murlin, ibid. 58, 337 (1923). Purification and properties: M. Bürger, W. Brandt, Z. Ges. Exp. Med. 96, 375 (1935); A. Staub et al., Science 117, 628 (1953); eidem, J. Biol. Chem. 214, 619 (1955). Amino acid sequence of porcine: W. W. Bromer et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 2807 (1957); of bovine: idem et al., J. Biol. Chem. 246, 2822 (1971); of human: J. Thomsen et al., FEBS Lett. 21, 315 (1972). Review: O. K. Behrens, W. W. Bromer, Vitam. Horm. 16, 263-301 (1958). Books: P. J. Lefèbvre, R. H. Unger, Glucagon (Pergamon Press, New York, 1972) 535 pp; Glucagon Pts. I and II, P. Lefèbvre, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1983) 700 pp. Review of cardiovascular effects and use as antidote to beta-blocker overdose: C. M. White, J. Clin. Pharmacol. 39, 442-447 (1999); of role in glucose homeostasis: G. Jiang, B. B. Zhang, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 284, E671-E678 (2003). Review of use to decrease gastrointestinal motility during endoscopy: T. Hashimoto et al., Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16, 111 (2002).
Properties: Rhombic dodecahedra. Stable. Practically insol in water. Sol in acidic, basic media, i.e. below pH 3 and above pH 9.5.
Therap-Cat: Antihypoglycemic. Diagnostic aid (adjunct for endoscopy).
Keywords: Antihypoglycemic.
Glucagon-Like Peptides Glucametacin Glucamine Glucofrangulin Glucoheptonic Acid

Glucagon

PDB rendering based on 1GCN.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols GCG; GLP1; GLP2; GRPP
External IDs OMIM: 138030 MGI: 95674 HomoloGene: 1553 ChEMBL: 5736 GeneCards: GCG Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GCG 206422 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2641 14526
Ensembl ENSG00000115263 ENSMUSG00000000394
UniProt P01275 P55095
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002054 NM_008100
RefSeq (protein) NP_002045 NP_032126
Location (UCSC) Chr 2:
163 – 163.01 Mb
Chr 2:
62.47 – 62.48 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas, that raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.[1] The pancreas releases glucagon when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels at a stable level. Glucagon belongs to a family of several other related hormones.