Jojoba Oil

Title: Jojoba Oil
Additional Names: Oil of jojoba
Literature References: A liquid wax ester mixture extracted from ground or crushed seeds from Simmondsia chinensis and S. californica Nutt. Buxaceae, desert shrubs native to Arizona, California, and northern Mexico: Greene, Foster, Bot. Gaz. 94, 826 (1933); Green et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1936, 1750; McKinney, Jamieson, Oil Soap (Chicago) 13, 289 (1936). Similar to sperm whale oil, it is composed essentially of C20 and C22 straight chain monoethylene acids and alcohols in the form of esters: Molaison et al., J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 36, 379 (1959); Miwa, ibid. 48, 259 (1971). Solvent effects in extraction: Knoepfler et al., ibid. 36, 644 (1959). Comparison of sulfurized jojoba and sperm whale oils as high pressure lubricants: T. K. Miwa et al., ibid. 56, 765 (1979). Potential chemical utilization studies: Fore et al., ibid. 37, 387 (1960); J. D. Johnson, C. W. Hinman, Science 208, 460 (1980). Possible uses: J. H. Brown, Manuf. Chem. 50(6), 47 (1979). Reviews: Knoepfler, Vix, J. Agric. Food Chem. 6, 118 (1958); Products from Jojoba: A Promising New Crop for Arid Lands, Committee on Jojoba Utilization, Natl. Res. Council, 1975; Jojoba: New Crop for Arid Lands, New Raw Material for Industry Natl. Res. Council, 1985.
Properties: Liquid wax. fp 10.6 to 7°; mp 6.8 to 7°, bp757 (under N2) 398°. Fire point 338°. Pour point 10°. d25 0.8642. n25 1.4648. Iodine no. 81.7. Saponification value 92.2. Acid value 0.32. Avg mol wt of wax esters: 606. Highly stable, and resistant to bacterial degradation; can be stored for years without becoming rancid.
Melting point: mp 6.8 to 7°
Boiling point: bp757 (under N2) 398°
Index of refraction: n25 1.4648
Density: d25 0.8642
Use: Potentially as lubricant, fuel, chemical feedstock, substitute for sperm whale oil. For other potential uses see Fore et al., loc. cit., Knoepfler, Vix, loc. cit, Johnson, Hinman, loc. cit.
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