Kallikrein

Title: Kallikrein
CAS Registry Number: 9001-01-8
Additional Names: Kallidinogenase; Callicrein
Trademarks: Padreatin; Padukrein (Bayropharm); Glumorin; Depot-Glumorin; Circuletin; Kalirechin (Toho); Onokrein P (Ono); Padutin (Winthrop); Prokrein (Tobishi); Promotin (Nippon Chemiphar)
Literature References: Hypotensive enzyme which releases kinins from plasma proteins. Major sources in the body are blood plasma, glandular tissues, and urine, occurring abundantly in the pancreas, parotid and submaxillary glands, in intestinal wall, in feces, in duodenal juice, and to a lesser degree in kidney. Isoln from mammalian pancreas or urine: Abelous, Bardier, C.R. Seances Soc. Biol. Ses Fil. 64, 848 (1908); Webster et al., Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 93, 181 (1956). Separation into two components, kallikreins A and B: E. Habermann, Z. Physiol. Chem. 328, 15 (1962); F. Fiedler, E. Werle, ibid. 348, 1087 (1967); C. Kutzbach, G. Schmidt-Kastner, ibid. 353, 1099 (1972). Prepn of high purity material: Werle, Trautschold, DE 1102973 (1960 to Bayer). Review on pig pancreatic kallikrein: F. Fiedler, Methods Enzymol. 45B, 289-303 (1976); on human kallikrein and prekallikrein: R. W. Colman, A. Bagdasarian, ibid. 303-322. Plasma kallikrein differs from glandular or urinary kallikrein. The latter two liberate kallidin, q.v.; the former releases bradykinin, q.v., both from the common precursor, kininogen. Pharmacology: Franz, Marquardt, Arzneim.-Forsch. 10, 779 (1960). Reviews: Schachter, Physiol. Rev. 49, 509 (1969); Suzuki et al., Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 8, 15 (1970).
Therap-Cat: Vasodilator.
Keywords: Vasodilator (Peripheral).
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Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases, enzymes capable of cleaving peptide bonds in proteins. In humans, plasma kallikrein (KLKB1) has no known homologue, while tissue kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) encode a family of fifteen closely related serine proteases. These genes are localised to chromosome 19q13, forming the largest contiguous cluster of proteases within the human genome. Kallikreins are responsible for the co-ordination of various physiological functions including blood pressure, semen liquefaction and skin desquamation.