Kerosene

Title: Kerosene
CAS Registry Number: 8008-20-6
Additional Names: Kerosine
Literature References: A mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons, chiefly of the methane series having from 10 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule. It constitutes the fifth fraction in the distillation of petroleum (after the petr ethers and before the oils). A typical analysis of the kerosene fraction from Midcontinent crude includes n-dodecane, three alkyl derivatives of benzene, naphthalene, 1- and 2-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene. Toxicity study: W. B. Deichmann et al., Ann. Intern. Med. 21, 803 (1944). Toxicological studies and recommended treatment of kerosene poisoning: H. W. Gerarde, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1, 462 (1959).
Properties: Pale yellow or water-white, mobile, oily liquid. Characteristic, not altogether disagreeable odor. d ~0.80. bp 175-325°. Flash pt 150-185°F. (65-85°C). Insol in water. Misc with other petroleum solvents. A water-white, deodorized form of kerosene is marketed under the trade name Deobase. Kerosene is deodorized and decolorized by washing with (fuming) sulfuric acid, followed by sodium plumbite soln and sulfur (Doctor sweetening). LD50 orally in rabbits: 28 ml/kg (Deichmann).
Boiling point: bp 175-325°
Flash point: Flash pt 150-185°F
Density: d ~0.80
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rabbits: 28 ml/kg (Deichmann)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat; burning sensation in chest; headache, nausea, weakness, restlessness, incoordination, confusion, drowsiness; vomiting, diarrhea; dermatitis; aspiration of liquid may cause chemical pneumonia. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 184.
Use: In kerosene lamps, flares, and stoves; as degreaser and cleaner; Deobase formerly used as a solvent in cosmetics and in fly spray.
Ketamine Ketanserin Ketazolam Kethoxal Ketipic Acid

An Australian kerosene bottle, containing blue-dyed kerosene.

Kerosene is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid. The name is derived from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning wax. The word "Kerosene" was registered as a trademark by Abraham Gesner in 1854, and for several years, only the North American Gas Light Company and the Downer Company (to which Gesner had granted the right) were allowed to call their lamp oil "Kerosene" in the United States.[1] It eventually became a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage.[2] The term "kerosene" is common in much of Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand.[3][4]

Kerosene is usually called paraffin in the UK, Ireland, Southeast Asia and South Africa. A more viscous paraffin oil is used as a laxative. A waxy solid extracted from petroleum is called paraffin wax. Kerosene is widely used to power jet engines of aircraft (jet fuel) and some rocket engines, but is also commonly used as a cooking and lighting fuel and for fire toys such as poi. In parts of Asia, where the price of kerosene is subsidized, it fuels outboard motors on small fishing boats.[5]

Kerosene lamps are widely used for lighting in rural areas of Asia and Africa where electrical distribution is not available or too costly for widespread use. Total kerosene consumption is equivalent to about 1.2 million barrels per day.[6]

Kerosene in some jurisdictions such as the U.S. is legally required[citation needed] to be stored in a blue container to avoid it being confused with the much more flammable gasoline, which is typically kept in a red container. In other jurisdictions, like many in Europe, there are no specific requirements for the storage of kerosene other than the container has to be closed and marked with its contents.