Title: Tumor Necrosis Factor
Additional Names: TNF
Literature References: Cytokine produced by activated macrophages as part of the cellular immune response. Originally characterized by its selective hemorrhagic necrosis of tumor cells. Identification in the sera of endotoxin treated mice previously sensitized with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG): E. A. Carswell et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 3666 (1975). Partial purification: S. Green et al., ibid. 73, 381 (1976). Preliminary characterization of murine TNF: T. Haranaka, N. Satomi, Jpn. J. Exp. Med. 51, 191 (1981); F. C. Kull, P. Cuatrecasas, J. Immunol. 126, 1279 (1981); of rabbit TNF: M. R. Ruff, G. E. Gifford, ibid. 125, 1671 (1980); N. Matthews et al., Br. J. Cancer 42, 416 (1980). Identification of macrophages as cellular source of TNF: D. N. Männel et al., Infect. Immun. 30, 523 (1980); N. Santomi et al., Jpn. J. Exp. Med. 51, 317 (1981). Differentiation from interferon: N. Bloksma et al., Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 14, 41 (1982). Cytotoxic effect on the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: C. G. Haidaris et al., Infect. Immun. 42, 385 (1983); A. O. Wozencraft et al., ibid. 43, 664 (1984). Activity against transplanted human and murine tumors in mice: T. Haranaka et al., Int. J. Cancer 34, 263 (1984). Human TNF is a trimer of 3 identical subunits with 157 amino acid residues and mol wt 17,350 Da. Cloning and expression of cDNA for human TNF in E. coli: D. Pennica et al., Nature 312, 724 (1984); T. Shirai et al., ibid. 313, 803 (1985); A. M. Wang et al., Science 228, 149 (1985). Identity with cachectin: B. Buetler, A. Cerami, Nature 320, 584 (1986). Structure: E. Y. Jones et al., ibid. 338, 225 (1989). Preliminary evaluation with interferon-g in metastatic melanoma: S. Retsas et al., Br. Med. J. 298, 1290 (1989). Reviews: M. R. Ruff, G. E. Gifford, Lymphokines 2, 235 (1981); L. J. Old, Sci. Am. 258(5), 59-60, 70-75 (1988).
NOTE: Lymphotoxin, a TNF-like factor produced by lymphocytes has been referred to as TNF-b.