Turpentine

Title: Turpentine
CAS Registry Number: 9005-90-7
Additional Names: Gum thus; pine resin
Literature References: Oleoresin from Pinus palustris Mill. and from other species of Pinus, Pinaceae. "Turpentine" also is used to designate the volatile oil. Review of production and properties: J. J. W. Coppen, G. A. Hone, Gum Naval Stores: Turpentine and Rosin from Pine Resin (FAO, Rome, 1995) 71 pp; of production and uses: S. K. Srivastava, M. C. Nigam, Curr. Res. Med. Aromat. Plants 3, 49-70 (1981); T. Plocek, Perfum. Flavor. 23, 1-6 (1998).
Properties: Yellowish, opaque, sticky masses; characteristic odor and taste. Insol in water. Sol in alc, chloroform, ether, glacial acetic acid.
Derivative Type: Volatile oil
CAS Registry Number: 8006-64-2
Additional Names: Oil of turpentine; spirit of turpentine; turpentine oil
Literature References: Distilled from the oleoresin yielding only terpene oils. Constit. a- and b-pinenes, limonene, 3-carene. May be rectified to remove unpleasant odor and taste by treatment with NaOH and distillation. A mixture of 3 parts oil with 1 part sulfurated linseed oil is known as Haarlem oil.
Properties: Colorless liq; characteristic odor and taste, both becoming more pronounced and less agreeable on aging or exposure to air. d2525 0.854-0.868. Greater part distills between 154-170°. nD20 1.4680-1.4780. Rotation is variable. Insol in water; sol in 5 vols alcohol; miscible with benzene, chloroform, ether, carbon disulfide, petr ether and oils. Flammable!
Index of refraction: nD20 1.4680-1.4780
Density: d2525 0.854-0.868
CAUTION: Absorbed through skin, lungs, intestine. Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat; headache, vertigo, convulsions; skin sensitization; hematuria, albuminuria; kidney damage; abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; cough, choking, dyspnea, cyanosis; excitement, ataxia, confusion, stupor. Aspiration of liquid may cause chemical pneumonia. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 324; Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) section III, pp 393-395.
Use: Solvent and thinner for paints, varnishes, polishes. In manufacture of aroma chemicals such as camphor, myrcene, linalool; source of pine oil.
Tutin Twistane Tybamate Tylocrebrine Tylophorine

Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine

Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, and wood turpentine) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines. It is mainly used as a solvent and as a source of materials for organic synthesis.

Turpentine is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene.[1] It is sometimes colloquially known as turps.[2]

The word turpentine derives (via French and Latin) from the Greek word τερεβινθίνη terebinthine, the name of a species of tree, the terebinth tree.[3] Mineral turpentine or other petroleum distillates are used to replace turpentine, but they are very different chemically.[4]