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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
X-gal (also abbreviated BCIG for 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) is an organic compound consisting of galactose linked to a substituted indole. The compound was synthesized by Jerome Horwitz and collaborators in Detroit, MI, in 1964. The formal chemical name is often shortened to less accurate but also less cumbersome phrases such as bromochloroindoxyl galactoside. The X from indoxyl may well be the source of the X in the X-gal contraction. X-gal is much used in molecular biology to test for the presence of an enzyme, β-galactosidase. It is also used to detect activity of this enzyme in histochemistry and bacteriology. X-gal is one of many indoxyl glycosides and esters that yield insoluble blue compounds similar to indigo as a result of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis.