alpha-Latrotoxin

Title: a-Latrotoxin
CAS Registry Number: 65988-34-3
Literature References: Neurotoxic protein isolated from the venom of black widow spiders, Latrodectus sp. Mol wt of monomer ~130 KDa. Active tetrameric form induces a massive release of neurotransmitters from neurosecretory cells; its mode of action involves receptor-mediated calcium dependent binding and calcium independent binding as well as pore formation. Identification of toxin as a peptide: S. Bettini, N. Toschi-Frontali, Proc. 11th Int. Congr. Entomol. 1960, 115-121. Purification: N. Frontali et al., J. Cell Biol. 68, 462 (1976). 3D-structure: E. V. Orlova et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 48 (2000). Possible mechanism of transmitter release: M. Khvotchev, T. C. Südhof, EMBO J. 19, 3250 (2000). Brief review: A. Malgaroli, J. Meldolesi, "a-Latrotoxin (black widow spider)" in Guide to Protein Toxins and Their Use in Cell Biology, R. Rappuoli, C. Montecucco, Eds. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997) pp 233-235. Review: A. Grasso et al., Cell Mol. Mech. Toxin Action 2, 333-355 (1998); of mechanisms of action: A. W. Henkel, S. Sankaranarayanan, Cell Tissue Res. 296, 229-233 (1999).
Use: Neurobiological tool for studying exocytosis, toxin-binding sites and pre-synaptic organization.
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A latrotoxin is a high-molecular mass neurotoxin found in the venom of spiders of the genus Latrodectus (widow spiders). Latrotoxins are the main active components of the venom and are responsible for the symptoms of latrodectism.

The following latrotoxins have been described: five insecticidal toxins, termed α, β, γ, δ and ε-latroinsectotoxins, one vertebrate-specific neurotoxin, alpha-latrotoxin, and one toxin affecting crustaceans, α-latrocrustatoxin.[1]