CAS Registry Number: 65988-34-3
Literature References: Neurotoxic protein isolated from the venom of black widow spiders, Latrodectus sp. Mol wt of monomer ~130 KDa. Active tetrameric form induces a massive release of neurotransmitters from neurosecretory cells; its mode of action involves receptor-mediated calcium dependent binding and calcium independent binding as well as pore formation. Identification of toxin as a peptide: S. Bettini, N. Toschi-Frontali, Proc. 11th Int. Congr. Entomol. 1960, 115-121. Purification: N. Frontali et al., J. Cell Biol. 68, 462 (1976). 3D-structure: E. V. Orlova et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 48 (2000). Possible mechanism of transmitter release: M. Khvotchev, T. C. Südhof, EMBO J. 19, 3250 (2000). Brief review: A. Malgaroli, J. Meldolesi, "a-Latrotoxin (black widow spider)" in Guide to Protein Toxins and Their Use in Cell Biology, R. Rappuoli, C. Montecucco, Eds. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997) pp 233-235. Review: A. Grasso et al., Cell Mol. Mech. Toxin Action 2, 333-355 (1998); of mechanisms of action: A. W. Henkel, S. Sankaranarayanan, Cell Tissue Res. 296, 229-233 (1999).
Use: Neurobiological tool for studying exocytosis, toxin-binding sites and pre-synaptic organization.